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English to Chinese: Ultrasonic Process for Autocatalytic of Metal on Microparticulate General field: Tech/Engineering Detailed field: Patents
Source text - English SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
It is an object of the present invention to obviate or mitigate the disadvantage of previous processes for metal deposition onto microparticulate.
The invention provides a process of multi-phased shifted ultrasonic traveling wave ion stimulation for autocatalytic deposition of metal onto microparticulate material at the resonant frequency of the material. Advantageously, metal ions are deposited evenly onto the material using this process. Further, the invention provides metalized microparticulate materials, such as NylonTM, KevlarTM, ZylonTM, or any polymeric material that can be formed in a microparticulate size. The invention is useful for a variety of military, avionic, and industrial applications.
The purpose of this invention is to control and accelerate the transfer rate of a metal, such as ionic silver, onto sensitized microparticulate material in such a manner that permits uniformly fine deposition of the metal. By controlling the depositional thickness, the weight of the metal added to the microparticulate does not weigh down the misarticulate, thereby leaving it capable of remaining airborne for a certain period of time. This process also permits the effective degassing of the autocatalytic medium, eliminating problems associated with depositional voids. In turn, the thickness and quality of the metal deposition on the microparticulate material, such as nylon, Kevlar or other polymers, controls the level of conductivity designated for the end product.
The sensitized microparticulate is constantly in motion relative to the metallic solution. Consequently, the microparticulate and the medium in which it is present are put in a constant and controlled flow toward each other. "l his eliminates depletion zones within the autocatalytic solution, which is a common problem with conventional methods of autocatalytic plating. Thus, when the sensitized microparticulate material is drawn through the metallizing solution at a controlled rate a constant deposition of metal is applied to the material.
Metalized microparticulate materials so formed can be used in a variety of applications, including the fields of military, aerospace, or industrial and commercial products.
Further, according to the invention there is provided a method for coating a surface with metallized microparticulate in such a way that the microparticulate is either aligned, polarized or arranged randomly so as to attenuate a signal from the surface. A method for coating a surface with a coated microparticulate fibers is disclosed herein in which microparticulate being generally oriented perpendicular to the surface. The method comprises spraying the coated microparticulate from a charged nozzle onto a surface having an opposite charge to the charge of the nozzle.
Optionally, the surface may be coated with two or more layers or microparticulate, each of which layer of microparticulate is metallized with a different metal, so as to allow formation of a galvanic current A method is disclosed herein for creating a surface across which a galvanic effect is observed. To accomplish this, the surface is layered with a metallized microparticulate coated with a first metal, followed by a metallized microparticulate coated with a second metal. The first metal differs from said second metal, and at least one of said first metal and said second metal is coated onto microparticulate using the ultrasonic method disclosed herein.
Other features of the present invention will become apparent to those ordinarily skilled in the art upon review of the following description of specific embodiments of the invention in conjunction with the accompanying figures.
English to Chinese: INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION LESSONS LEARNED AS APPLIED TO EXPLORATION
Source text - English ...
In 2009, as construction of the International Space Station (ISS) approached completion, and the program’s Multilateral Coordination Board (MCB) reflected on the process, they thought it would be valuable to future exploration programs to capture the lessons learned over the ISS design, development, assembly, and operations phases.
A summary of this effort, as conducted by all of the ISS International Partners (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Agency, the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency/Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and the Russian Federal Space Agency), is provided below. The results are organized in seven categories:
Each lesson learned is accompanied by a corresponding application to future exploration programs. A more detailed discussion for each of these lessons and applications and the Partner origin are provided in the attached appendices.