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English to Italian: Vascular Parkinsonism: A Clinical Review by Hani T.S. Benamer, Donald G. Grosset General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical (general)
Source text - English A parkinsonian syndrome may be caused by cerebrovascular disease, a concept introduced when Critchley described 5 types of clinical presentation of what he termed arteriosclerotic parkinsonism in 1929. Rigidity, fixed faces and short-stepping gait were the main clinical signs. Pseudo-bulbar, pyramidal or cerebellar signs and the presence of dementia and incontinence were considered as additional features. After several clinical studies in the 1960s and 1970s had shown no relation between arteriosclerosis and Parkinson’s disease (PD), Critchley in 1981 renamed the condition arteriosclerotic pseudo-parkinsonism. Several alternative terms have been used including vascular parkinsonism (VP) and lower-body parkinsonism (LBP), but there are no generally accepted clinical criteria to diagnose this condition.
With the development of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the concept of VP was revived. This was supported by post-mortem studies showing vascular lesions in the striatum and lacunar infarcts in patients with clinical features very similar to PD, including an apparent response to levodopa, but with no evidence of Lewy bodies. It has been estimated that parkinsonism due to cerebrovascular disease accounts for 3–12% of all cases of parkinsonism. However, the true incidence and prevalence rates of VP are not known, as there are no specific diagnostic criteria.
(...) LBP is another clinical pattern suggesting a cerebrovascular cause for (or contribution to) parkinsonian features. FitzGerald and Jankovic compared 10 patients with marked gait difficulty to 100 subjects with PD. Gait disturbance was the initial symptom in 7% of PD cases. The only difference in vascular risk factors was an excess of hypertension in LBP. Only 22% of LBP responded to levodopa, while 96% of PD did so. The scores for speech, hypomimia, neck rigidity, upper limb rest tremor, rigidity and hand dexterity were significantly lower in LBP, emphasising the relative sparing, though not absence, of upper body and trunk involvement. The duration of symptoms was considerably shorter in LBP than PD.
Translation - Italian Una sindrome parkinsoniana può essere causata da patologie cerebrovascolari, concetto introdotto nel 1929, quando Critchley descrisse 5 tipologie di quadri clinici di ciò che definì parkinsonismo arteriosclerotico. I principali segni clinici erano rigidità, ipomimia facciale e andatura a piccoli passi, invece erano considerati aspetti supplementari i segni pseudobulbari, piramidali o cerebellari, e la presenza di demenza e incontinenza. Nel 1981, dopo l’insuccesso di diversi studi clinici condotti negli anni Sessanta e Settanta nel tentativo di rivelare un nesso tra l'arteriosclerosi e la malattia di Parkinson (MP), Critchley ribattezzò la malattia con il termine 'pseudo-parkinsonismo arteriosclerotico'. Nel corso del tempo vari termini alternativi sono stati usati, inclusi parkinsonismo vascolare (PV) e parkinsonismo degli arti inferiori (lower body parkinsonism - LBP), ma non sono stati individuati criteri clinici universalmente accettati per diagnosticare tale patologia.
Il concetto di PV è tornato in auge grazie all'evoluzione della tomografia computerizzata (TC) e della risonanza magnetica per immagini (MRI). Questo ritorno è stato inoltre confermato da studi post-mortem che hanno mostrato lesioni vascolari nel corpo striato e infarti lacunari in pazienti con aspetti clinici molto simili a quelli propri della MP, inclusa una risposta apparente alla levodopa, ma senza che si evidenziassero corpi di Lewy. Secondo alcune stime, il parkinsonismo a seguito di patologie cerebrovascolari rappresenta il 3-12% di tutti i casi di parkinsonismo. Tuttavia, non sono noti la reale incidenza e il tasso di prevalenza del PV, dal momento che non ci sono criteri diagnostici specifici.
(...) LBP è un altro pattern clinico che indica una causa (o una concausa) cerebrovascolare in riferimento ai tratti parkinsoniani. FitzGerald e Jankovic hanno messo a confronto 10 pazienti con marcata difficoltà nella marcia con 100 soggetti affetti da MP. Nel 7% dei casi di MP, il disturbo della marcia era il sintomo iniziale. Nei casi di LBP, la sola differenza nei fattori di rischio vascolare consisteva nell'ipertensione eccessiva. Solo il 22% dei pazienti con LBP ha risposto alla levodopa, mentre nel caso dei pazienti con MP c'è stata una risposta pari al 96%. Nei casi di LBP i punteggi per il linguaggio, l'ipomimia, la rigidità del collo, il tremore a riposo agli arti superiori, la rigidità e la destrezza manuale erano significativamente più bassi, a ulteriore conferma del coinvolgimento relativamente modesto, anche se non assente, della parte superiore del corpo e del tronco. La durata dei sintomi era notevolmente più breve nel LBP rispetto alla MP.
Master's degree - ICoN Consortium, Università di Bari, Genova e Pisa – Italy
Years of translation experience: 7. Registered at ProZ.com: Nov 2013. Became a member: Feb 2016.
I am a native Italian speaker, graduated in Foreign Languages and Literatures and technically qualified thanks to a Postgraduate course in ENG>ITA Specialist Translation, which handed on me precious knowledge tools to improve my skills in translation approaches.
Having worked in different areas, I was able to enrich my language skills as a translator, using them on the field, especially tourism/travel and technology/environment ones. For 7 years I worked part-time in the renewable energy industry, acquiring a considerable knowledge of peculiar terminology.
During the above-mentioned course in specialist translation, I worked very hard on biomedicine domain to gain an accurate methodology allowing me now to deal with its particular texts; since then I'm constantly delving into this attractive field.
Fully aware of the multifaceted nature of the Italian language, I'm constantly aspiring to convey the specific message from the source to the target text, through continuous researches and lifelong studies.
• Medicine, Pharmacology and Environmental Health (information sheets, SPCs, package leaflets, polluting substances reports, EMA and ECHA documents)
• Technology, Environment and Energy (brochures, corporate presentations, renewable energy projects illustrations, marketing materials, MSDS, user manuals and technical brochures on household appliances)
• Tourism/travel (brochures, catalogues, pricelists and commercial texts for tourist information centres and companies in the hospitality industry)
- Postgraduate degree in ENG>ITA Specialist Translation, in:
> Biomedicine, pharmacology and environmental health
> Technology and Environment ICoN Consortium, Università di Bari, Genova e Pisa – Italy
- Practical Course in Literary Translation ENG>ITA, Leconte publisher and the international culture magazine Storie All Write
- Foreign Languages and Literatures Degree (MA) - English and German Università di Firenze – Italy
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