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English to Japanese: Natural Catastrophes in 2012 Dominated by U.S. Weather Extremes General field: Science Detailed field: Energy / Power Generation
Source text - English In 2012, there were 905 natural catastrophes worldwide, 93 percent of which were weather-related disasters. In terms of overall and insured losses (US$170 billion and $70 billion, respectively), 2012 did not follow the records set in 2011 and could be defined as a moderate year on a global scale. But the United States was seriously affected by weather extremes, accounting for 69 percent of overall losses and 92 percent of insured losses due to natural catastrophes worldwide.
Of the 905 documented loss events, 45 percent were meteorological events (storms), 36 percent were hydrological events (floods), and 12 percent were climatological events such as heat waves, cold waves, droughts, and wildfires. The remaining 7 percent were geophysical events—earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. This distribution deviates somewhat from long-term trends, as between 1980 and 2011 geophysical events accounted for 14 percent of all natural catastrophes.
Translation - Japanese 2012年、世界中で905件の自然災害が発生し、このうち93％は天候関連の災害であった。総損失額及び保険損害（アメリカはそれぞれ1700億米ドルと700億米ドル）に関しては、2012年は2011年の記録を引き継ぐことなく、世界的な規模で考えると穏やかな年であったと言えるかもしれない。それでもアメリカは、世界中の自然災害による総損失額の69％および保険損害の92％を占めた異常気象によって深刻な影響を受けた。
Japanese to English: Banking Nature General field: Social Sciences Detailed field: Finance (general)
Source text - Japanese We investigate the commercialization of the natural world. Protecting our planet has become big business with companies like Merrill Lynch and JP Morgan Chase promoting new environmental markets. This involves species banking, where investors buy up vast swathes of land, full of endangered species, to enable them to sell ‘nature credits’. Companies whose actions destroy the environment are now obliged to buy these credits and new financial centres have sprung up, specializing in this trade. In countries like America, the system works very well. Many respected economists, like Pavan Sukhev, believe that the best way to protect nature is to put a price on it. But others fear that this market in nature could lead to companies having a financial interest in a species’ extinction. There are also concerns that - like the dotcom bubble of the 1990s or the subprime mortgage crisis of 2008 - the market in nature credits is bound to crash. And there are wider issues at stake. What guarantees do we have that our natural inheritance will be protected? And should our ecological heritage be for sale?
Translation - English 自然界の商業化を探る。地球の保護は、新たな環境市場の発展を促進するメリルリンチやJPモーガンといった企業にとって大きなビジネスになった。これは、絶滅危惧種が多く生息する広大な土地を投資者が買い上げ「自然クレジット」を売ることを可能にする、種の取引が伴う。業務によって環境を破壊する企業には、これらのクレジットを購入することが現在義務を付けられている。加えて、このような取引を専門にする新たな金融センターが誕生した。アメリカのような国では、このシステムは大変良く機能する。パヴァン・スクデフなど著名なエコノミストの多くが、 最も有効な環境保護の方法は自然に値段をつけることだと確信している。しかし、この自然市場が、種の絶滅に経済的な興味を抱く企業を生み出す可能性を危惧する声もある。加えて、1990年代のドットコムバブルや2008年のサブプライム住宅ローン危機のように自然クレジット市場が崩壊する運命にあるという懸念もある。それに、より幅広い問題も残っている。自然遺産がこれからも保護される保証がどこにあるのか？そして、私たちの生態学的遺産が売買されても良いのか？
English to Japanese: SOUTH AFRICA: Climate change tool helps identify vulnerable farmers General field: Science Detailed field: Environment & Ecology
Source text - English SOUTH AFRICA: Climate change tool helps identify vulnerable farmers
The production of maize, South Africa's staple food, could drop by as much as 30 percent in another two decades as climate change brings more intense droughts, but little is known about how this will affect farmers.
Now, an analytical tool based on a study, Mapping South African Farming Sector Vulnerability to Climate Change and Variability, has been developed to help policy-planners identify the communities most vulnerable to climate change and help them prepare for radically different farming conditions.
South Africa has approximately 100 million hectares of agricultural land, of which 14 million receive sufficient rainfall to grow crops.
In the densely populated rural areas of KwaZulu-Natal Province on the east coast, the largest agricultural contributor to South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP), small-scale farmers dependent on rain-fed agriculture were found to be among the least resistant to global warming. HIV prevalence is also particularly high. Farmers in Limpopo Province, in the north, and Eastern Cape Province, on the southeast coast, were also vulnerable.
“The farmers in those provinces have less resilience because the areas they live in are undeveloped, with no means to access drought-tolerant crop varieties,” said Glwadys Gbetibouo, a researcher at the Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy in Africa, at the University of Pretoria, and one of the study’s two authors; the other writer was Claudia Ringler, a senior researcher at the International Food Policy Research Institute, a US-based think-tank.
The tool is an index of 19 environmental and socio-economic indicators that are used to determine vulnerability, such as frequency of droughts, percentage of irrigated land, farm income, farm size, HIV prevalence and farm assets in the country’s nine provinces.
The Western Cape and Gauteng provinces, which have a high level of infrastructural development and literacy but make a much lower agricultural contribution to GDP, are relatively low on the vulnerability index.
''The farmers in those provinces have less resilience because the areas they live in are undeveloped, with no means to access drought-tolerant crop varieties'' What can be done
The study suggests reducing pressure on natural resources, improving environmental risk management, and providing social safety nets for the poor.
In the highly vulnerable provinces policy-makers should enact measures to promote market participation, especially among small-scale farmers; encourage the diversification of livelihoods to make people less dependent on agriculture; put in place social programmes and increase spending on health, education and welfare to help maintain and strengthen physical and intangible human capital.
Gbetibouo called for the development of infrastructure in rural areas, and the provision of agricultural insurance. In high exposure regions, especially coastal zones, priority should be given to developing more accurate systems for early warning of extreme climatic events such as drought or floods.
According to the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, food production in South Africa has increased over the last 40 years, mainly through improvements in productivity, but production per capita in the Southern African Development Community as a whole is declining.
"There have been large drops in production (notably 1981–1983 and 1989–1993) that coincided with major droughts followed by periods of recovery. But these recovery periods have not been sufficient for food production to keep up with population growth. This could become an area of concern, as it may have an impact on food security, not only in South Africa, but in the region also."
Translation - Japanese 南アフリカ：気候変動対策ツールが脆弱農家の判別に寄与。
My work experience includes translating and checking.
I have been working for over 12 years. My work includes scientific papers in energy, mining, environmental conservations etc., brochures, government reports and announcements, business letters, company provisions/ rules, training materials, etc.
My main areas of expertise are environmental studies, conservation, energy, and GIS/mapping.
I am able to use, Omega-T, Power Point, Word, Excel, Open Office.
My major projects include:
ANA, Tsukuba University, Chiba prefectural office in Japan, Fuji film, Oracle, JEITA, IAF, Ministry of the Environment in Japan, JP Morgan, Gap, Coca Cola West Japan, Johnson and Johnson, Kyoto prefectural office in Japan, Harvard Business Review.
Special training in translation:
Fellow Academy's Master Course in Energy and Environment
PROZ.com "Translation for Environmental Organizations", etc.