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Source text - English ÔÎÄ:Best and Worst Used Cars
·¢ÏÖÕß:xiaozhan À´Ô´:http://editorial.autos.msn.com ·¢²¼Ê±¼ä:2008-03-21 ÀàÐÍ:×ªÔØ
Is it time to replace your car? Owners of 27 percent of the vehicles in our latest Annual Car Reliability Survey acquired them used last year, and they're definitely on to something. Data from our exclusive survey, conducted by the Consumer Reports National Research Center, show that hundreds of used-car models provide good reliability. And they can be safe, fuel efficient, and affordable.
Used vehicles are often some of the best values you'll find because you sidestep the biggest expense associated with buying a new car: depreciation.
For example, a seven-year-old Lexus RX SUV, a safe and reliable vehicle that typically costs $40,000 when new, can be found for $12,000 to $14,000. And young drivers don't have to settle for a new small car like the Toyota Yaris when they can find a fairly new, roomier, and better equipped used vehicle in the same price range, such as a Honda Accord, Nissan Altima, or Toyota Camry.
To minimize the risks, look for vehicles that have proved to be reliable. The following lists of models from 1998 through 2007 will steer you to the gems (and away from the duds) among the thousands of used vehicles on the market.
The Best of the best and Worst of the worst are based on our larger lists of Reliable used cars and Used cars to avoid (both available to subscribers).
These comprehensive lists give you a rundown of all the models that were found, from our data, to be above or below average in reliability. Owners reported on any serious problems they had had with their cars, minivans, SUVs, and pickup trucks in the previous year.
BEST OF THE BEST
These are models that have performed well in CR road tests over the years, and have proved to have several or more years of better-than-average reliability. Listed alphabetically.
Honda Civic Hybrid
Infiniti I30, I35
Lexus GS (RWD)
Lincoln Town Car
Mazda MX-5 Miata
Porsche 911 (except '03)
Toyota Camry (except '07 V6)
Toyota Camry Solara
Toyota Land Cruiser
Toyota Tundra (except '07 V8 4WD)
WORST OF THE WORST
These vehicles showed multiple Used Car Verdicts that were much worse than average, according to our survey respondents. They consistently had more problems than other models overall.
Buick Rendezvous (AWD)
Chevrolet Colorado (4WD)
Chevrolet S-10 Pickup (4WD)
Chrysler Town & Country (AWD)
Dodge Grand Caravan (AWD)
GMC Canyon (4WD)
GMC S-15 Sonoma (4WD)
Jeep Grand Cherokee
Land Rover Discovery, LR3
Nissan Armada (4WD)
Nissan Titan (4WD)
Pontiac Montana, Trans Sport, Montana SV6
Volkswagen Jetta Sedan (turbo)
Volkswagen Jetta Sedan (V6)
About these lists
The lists on these pages are compiled from overall reliability data covering 1998-2007 models with above-average or much-below-average reliability. CR Good Bets and Bad Bets include only the models for which we have sufficient data for at least three model years. Models that were brand-new in 2006 or 2007 do not appear. Problems with the engine major, engine cooling, transmission major, and drive system were weighted more heavily than other problems.
The full Ratings and recommendations for more than 200 vehicles, along with the latest information on thousands of other products and services, are available to ConsumerReports.org subscribers. Find out how to subscribe today.
Translation - Chinese 译文:二手车的优劣排行榜
English to Chinese: Crusades, Islam Expansion Traced in Lebanon DNA
Source text - English A new study has found genetic traces of both the arrival of the Crusades and of the expansion of Islam in Lebanon.
The findings not only confirm well-documented history but also present a rare genetic trail showing the movement of two major religions into Lebanon, scientists say.
"Lebanon has always had a rich history of receiving different cultures," said the study's lead author, Pierre Zalloua, an associate professor at the Lebanese American University,
"This study tells us that some of them did not just conquer and leave behind castles. They left a subtle genetic connection as well."
Zalloua and his colleagues at the National Geographic Society's Genographic Project were conducting a broader survey of Middle Eastern populations when they stumbled upon their finding. (The National Geographic Society owns National Geographic News.)
Unlike previous studies that have relied on mitochondrial DNA¡ªwhich is passed on maternally¡ªto unlock secrets of human migration, researchers in the current study focused on the paternally provided Y chromosome, as it is thought to provide more detailed information.
The study appears in the current issue of the American Journal of Human Genetics.
Crusaders and Muslims
The distribution of genetic markers at first appeared virtually indistinguishable across the Christian, Druze, and Muslim populations of Lebanon. But a closer look at the Y chromosomes of 926 Lebanese men sampled in the study revealed something intriguing.
"We noticed some interesting lineages in the dataset. Among Lebanese Christians, in particular, we found higher frequency of a genetic marker¡ªR1b¡ªthat we see typically see only in Western Europe," said Spencer Wells, a National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence.
The study matched the western European Y-chromosome lineage against thousands of people in France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom. Wells said the lineage was seen enriched to a higher frequency only in the Christian populations in Lebanon and was not seen in the Muslim population.
"It certainly doesn't undermine the similarities among the various Lebanese communities, but it does agree with oral tradition¡ªthat some Lebanese Christians are descendents of Crusaders¡ªand points to a genetic connection to the Crusaders," he added.
"We have a correspondence between what we knew about the history of the region from written documents and what we're starting to see that in the genetic patterns as well."
The researchers noticed a similar pattern when they looked at Y-chromosome lineages in the Muslim population.
"We found that a lineage that is very common in the Arabian Peninsula¡ªHg J*¡ªis found in slightly higher frequencies preferentially in the Muslim population," said Wells, who also heads the Genographic Project.
Wells said that even though the genetic matches are found only in about 2 percent of the population, they provide a detectable impact of two historical migrations into Lebanon.
"What is cool is that we found this lineage in the Lebanese Christians that we don't see elsewhere in the Middle East, or at least we haven't seen it yet," Wells said. "So it seems to have migrated from Western Europe relatively recently into the Lebanese population of Christians, but not Muslims.
"Now what historical events would have brought a substantial number¡ª2 percent¡ªof Y chromosomes in the Christian population in from Western Europe?" he added. "The most likely answer is the Crusades."
The Genographic researchers say their discoveries suggest, in particular, that Crusaders from the 11th to 13th centuries A.D. introduced their lineages into the Lebanese population.
The expansion of Islam from the Arabian Peninsula beginning in the seventh century A.D. likely introduced lineages into people who subsequently became Lebanese Muslims, they add.
Peter Underhill is a senior research scientist at Stanford University who has previously analyzed Y chromosomes to study human migrations out of Africa.
He says the treasure trove of data from the new study will be helpful in studying historical human migrations. But he is not fully convinced about the findings.
"I must admit that I hesitate to fully embrace the assumptions and the conclusions of major historic Crusader and Muslim influences being the major forcing factors modulating the genetic landscape in Lebanon," Underhill said.
"I am always tempted to ask the question, What if the Crusaders or Muslim events never happened? Is it feasible that one would still see similar patterns?"
Christians were established and converting "locals" in the Middle East prior to the arrival of the Crusaders, Underhill pointed out. The Greeks also had a pre-Crusade presence, so the chromosome match could have come from Greece rather than France or England.
But Wells and his colleagues disagree.
"The fact that we do detect significant excesses of the lineages Hg J* and R1b in the relevant Lebanese subpopulations requires explanation," Wells said.
"The documented Muslim and Crusader migrations could, following Underhill's line of reasoning, have left no genetic impact, but in that case, other undocumented migrations of significant numbers of men from the same source regions must have taken place."
Wells said such an alternative explanation is more complicated and less plausible than the simpler explanation that the migrations known from history are responsible for the observed genetic effects.
Translation - Chinese 译文:黎巴嫩人DNA解密发现：十字军东征和伊斯兰扩张的痕迹
译者：lemonde 所属联盟：英语译者联盟 时间:2008-04-03
English to Chinese: Study: Dyslexia differs by language
Source text - English Study: Dyslexia differs by language
发现者:transwood 来源:news.yahoo.com 发布时间:2008-04-08 类型:转载
Dyslexia affects different parts of children's brains depending on whether they are raised reading English or Chinese. That finding, reported in Monday's online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, means that therapists may need to seek different methods of assisting dyslexic children from different cultures.
"This finding was very surprising to us. We had not ever thought that dyslexics' brains are different for children who read in English and Chinese," said lead author Li-Hai Tan, a professor of linguistics and brain and cognitive sciences at the University of Hong Kong. "Our finding yields neurobiological clues to the cause of dyslexia."
Millions of children worldwide are affected by dyslexia, a language-based learning disability that can include problems in reading, spelling, writing and pronouncing words. The International Dyslexia Association says there is no consensus on the exact number because not all children are screened, but estimates range from 8 percent to 15 percent of students.
Reading an alphabetic language like English requires different skills than reading Chinese, which relies less on sound representation, instead using symbols to represent words.
Past studies have suggested that the brain may use different networks of neurons in different languages, but none has suggested a difference in the structural parts of the brain involved, Tan explained.
Tan's research group studied the brains of students raised reading Chinese, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. They then compared those findings with similar studies of the brains of students raised reading English.
Guinevere F. Eden, director of the Center for the Study of Learning at Georgetown University in Washington, said the process of becoming a skilled reader changes the brain.
"Becoming a reader is a fairly dramatic process for the brain," explained Eden, who was not part of Tan's research team on this paper.
For children, learning to read is culturally important but is not really natural, Eden said, so when the brain orients toward a different writing system it copes with it differently.
For example, English-speaking children learn the sounds of letters and how to combine them into words, while Chinese youngsters memorize hundreds of symbols which represent words.
"The implication here is that when we see a reading disability, we see it in different parts of the brain depending on the writing system that the child is born into," Eden said.
That means, "we cannot just assume that any dyslexic child is going to be helped by the same kind of intervention," she said in a telephone interview.
Tan said the new findings suggest that treating Chinese speakers with dyslexia may use working memory tasks and tests relating to sensor-motor skills, while current treatments of English dyslexia focus on letter-sound conversions and sound awareness.
He said the underlying cause of brain structure abnormalities in dyslexia is currently unknown.
"Previous genetic studies suggest that malformations of brain development are associated with mutations of several genes and that developmental dyslexia has a genetic basis," he said in an interview via e-mail.
"We speculate that different genes may be involved in dyslexia in Chinese and English readers. In this respect, our brain-mapping findings can assist in the search for candidate genes that cause dyslexia," Tan said.
In their paper, the researchers noted that imaging studies of the brains of dyslexic children using alphabetic languages like English have identified unusual function and structure in the left temporo-parietal areas, thought to be involved in letter-to-sound conversions in reading; left middle-superior temporal cortex, thought to be involved in speech sound analysis, and the left inferior temporo-occipital gyrus, which may function as a quick word-form recognition system.
When they performed similar imaging studies on dyslexic Chinese youngsters, on the other hand, they found disruption in a different area, the left middle frontal gyrus region.
The study was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, the Hong Kong Research Grants Council and the University of Hong Kong.
In a separate paper, published two years ago, University of Michigan researchers reported that Asians and North Americans see the world differently.
Shown a photograph, North American students of European background paid more attention to the object in the foreground of a scene, while students from China spent more time studying the background and taking in the whole scene.
Translation - Chinese 译文:研究发现：阅读困难症因语言而异
I worked as technical interpreter & translator for 20 years. Experiences related to the engineering, construction, operation, upgrading, revamping of many chemical plants have been accumulated during the works of the translation of various documents and interpretation on site, at meetings, contractual negotiations. Interpretation tasks in the US, France, Germany, Belgium, Finland etc have been successfully fulfilled. Being self-motivated, highly responsible, better communicating with clients. My clients include the following multi-national companies such as Dupont fiber, Jacobs Engineering, GE plastic of the US, BP of UK, Technip spichim of France and Mistui, Mitsubishi of Japan etc. I can provide translation(C-E,E-C, F-E,F-C) documents of patents, bidding, FIDIC contracts and interpretations (E-C,C-E).
Verified Report on the Coal Reserves of xxx Coal Mine, 20000 WORDS, from C to E;
LES SPORTIVE, 5000 words, from French to English;
Computer User Manual, partial documents, 20000 Chinese characters, from E to C;
Electrical Code and Standard, 7500 Chinese characters, from E to C;
Feasibility Study on Chemical Project, 30,000 Chinese characters, from E to C;
Training document on the Plastic films, 8000 Chinese characters, from C to E;
Personal Employment Contract, 5000 English words, from E to C;
Operation Procedure on Sugar Processing, 10,000 Chinese characters, from C to E;
Eligibility Certificates Architectural Enterprises, 5,000 Chinese characters, from C to E;
Company Introduction Pengyuan Enterprises Group, 15,000 Chinese characters, from C to E;
TAL Brochure, Man-made Materials related to Chemical, Textiles and Geo-textiles etc, 10,000 Chinese characters, from E to C;
Mg(OH)2 in Flue Gas Desulphurization, 5,000 Chinese characters, from C to E;
Lease Contract, 5,000 Chinese characters, from C to E;
Jacobs Engineering Documents, 50,000 Chinese characters, from E to C;
Research Documents of Dupont Chemical Fiber, 150,000 Chinese characters, from E to C;
Commercial contract 20,000 Chinese characters from C-to E;
Keywords: chinese to/from english, french to chinese, french to english. chemistry, textile, engineering, management, environment, FIDIC etc.