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English to Chinese: DTI Reveals Differences in Brains of Autism Patients
Source text - English Using a new form of brain imaging known as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), researchers have found that the white matter in the brains of individuals with autism has lower structural integrity than in the brains of normal people. This provides further evidence that the anatomic differences characterizing the brains of individuals with autism are related to the way their brains process information.
The findings of this latest study are soon to be published in the journal NeuroReport. The scientists, from the Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging at Carnegie Mellon University (Pittsburgh, PA, USA; www.cmu.edu), utilized a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, DTI, which tracks the movement of water through brain tissue, to measure the structural integrity of the white matter that acts as cables to wire the parts of the brain together. Typically, water molecules move, or diffuse, in a direction parallel to the orientation of the nerve fibers of the white matter. They are helped by the coherent structure of the fibers and a process called myelination, in which a sheath is formed around the fibers that speeds nerve impulses.
The movement of water is more dispersed if the structural integrity of the tissue is low – i.e., if the fibers are less dense, less coherently organized, or less myelinated – as it was with the participants with autism in the Carnegie Mellon study. Investigators found this dispersed pattern specifically in areas in and around the corpus callosum, the large band of nerve fibers that connects the two hemispheres of the brain.
Dr. Marcel Just, director of the Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging and a co-author of the latest study, remarked “The new findings also provide supporting evidence for a new theory of autism that attributes the disorder to underconnectivity among brain regions.”
In 2004, Dr. Just and his colleagues proposed the underconnectivity hypothesis based on a groundbreaking study in which they discovered abnormalities in the white matter that suggested a lack of coordination among brain areas in individuals with autism. This theory helps explain a paradox of autism: Some people with autism have normal or even superior skills in some areas, while many other types of thinking are chaotic.
The latest research is providing a comprehensive image of the autistic brain, whose components operate with less coordination than is generally the case, and which is less reliant on frontal components and more reliant on posterior components. The latest DTI finding shows that some of the frontal-posterior communication fiber tracts are abnormal, consistent with the lower level of frontal-posterior coordination.
I am a Chinese native currently living in Beijing. My education background is in Biomedical Engineering with emphasis in computer and electronics. That is why I claim my fields of expertise in medical instruments, medical general as well as computer software, information technology and electronics. Before I had 2 years of academic experiences and 3 years of industry experiences in the United States. I started my career as an engineer and switched to international marketing not long ago, all in medical device industry. In parallel with my mainstay business, I served as editor for HospiMedica Chinese Edition, published by Globetech Publishing Group (www.medinews.com), from the year of 2002 up to now. Through those valuable experiences I acquired in-depth understanding of technical English and developed superior bilingual skills. You can count on me for your technical documents such as product brochures, manuals and ads. I am committed to accurate, authentic and easy-to-read delivery. Make me your translation choice and add values to your business!
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