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English to Chinese: Manic Depressive Disorder General field: Medical Detailed field: Medical (general)
Source text - English Manic Depressive Disorder
Manic depressive disorder is a severe, dual mental illness. Its clinic feature shows bipolar disorder. Manic depression is characterized by periodic episodes of extreme elation, elevated mood countered by periodic, classic depressive symptoms.
There are two types of outbreak of disorder: bipolar I and bipolar II. A person affected by bipolar I shows clear signs of mania and depression. However, in bipolar II cases, mania represents neutral and depression sometimes represents neither mild nor violent. Therefore, bipolar II is hard to diagnosed and is usually misdiagnosed by common depression.
Manic depressive disorder is caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. It may be caused by incomplete gene or genome which will lead to change of serotonin and norepinephrine in nervous sensors. However, it is still controversial. In fact, the family history of metal illness, depression or suicidal patients does show that gene may be an important factor.
Most treatment for manic depressive disorder patients is combination of medication and psychotherapy. The aim of psychotherapy is to help patients accept the fact that he/she is ill and the illness can be cured. However, it must be declared that patient refusing the treatment is the common problem. Sometimes, cooperation of an adult patient is just a feint. Psychotherapy treatment forms include the therapies on recognition, behaviour and psychodynamics, and providing support from individuals, family and society.