Translation glossary: Acoustics, Sound, Audio Engineering Glossary

Creator:
Filter
Reset
Showing entries 301-350 of 671
« Prev Next »
 
Input ImpedanceThe input impedance of an electrical network is the ‘load’ into which a power source delivers energy. In modern audio systems the input impedance is normally about ten times higher than the source impedance 
English
Insert PointsThe provision on a mixing console or ‘channel strip’ processor of a facility to break into the signal path through the unit to insert an external processor. Budget devices generally use a single connection (usually a TRS socket) with unbalanced send and return signals on separate contacts, requiring a splitter or Y-cable to provide separate send (input to the external device) and return (output from external device) connections . High end uni 
English
Insert PointsThe provision on a mixing console or ‘channel strip’ processor of a facility to break into the signal path through the unit to insert an external processor. Budget devices generally use a single connection (usually a TRS socket) with unbalanced send and return signals on separate contacts, requiring a splitter or Y-cable to provide separate send (input to the external device) and return (output from external device) connections . High end uni 
English
Instrument LevelThe nominal signal level generated by an electric instrument like a guitar, bass guitar or keyboard. Typically around -25dBu. Instrument signals must be amplified to raise them to line-level. 
English
InsulatorA material that does not conduct electricity. (Also see conductor) 
English
InterfaceA device that acts as an intermediary to two or more other pieces of equipment. For example, a MIDI interface enables a computer to communicate with MIDI instruments and keyboards. 
English
IntermittentSomething that happens occasionally and unpredictably, typically a fault condition. 
English
Intermodulation DistortionA form of non-linear distortion that introduces frequencies not present in and musically unrelated to the original signal. These are invariably based on the sum and difference products of the original frequencies. 
English
IPSInches Per Second. Used to describe tape speed. Also the Institute of Professional Sound (www.ips.org.uk) 
English
IRQInterrupt Request. Part of the operating system of a computer that allows a connected device to request attention from the processor in order to transfer data to it or from it. 
English
Isolation RoomA separate room or enclosure designed to provide acoustic isolation from external noise. Often used alongside a studio\'s main live room to record vocals or drums, for example, without spill from other instruments. 
English
Isolator (also decoupler)A device intended to prevent the transmission of physical vibrations over a specific frequency range, such as a rubber or foam block. The term can also be applied to audio isolation transformers, used to provide galvanic isolation between the source and destination, thus avoiding ground loops. 
English
Isopropyl AlcoholA type of alcohol commonly used for cleaning and de-greasing tape machine heads and guides. 
English
Jack PlugA commonly used audio connector, usually ¼ inch in diameter and with either two terminals (tip and sleeve known as TS) or three (tip, ring, sleeve called TRS). The TS version can only carry unbalanced mono signals, and is often used for electric instruments (guitars, keyboards, etc). The TRS version is used for unbalanced stereo signals (eg for headphones) or balanced mono signals. 
English
JackfieldA system of panel-mounted connectors used to bring inputs and outputs to a central point from where they can be routed using plug-in patch cords. Also called a patchbay. 
English
JargonSpecialised words associated with a specialist subject. 
English
k(lower-case k) The standard abbreviation for kilo, meaning a multiplier of 1000 (one thousand). Used as a prefix to other values to indicate magnitude, eg. 1kHz = 1000Hz, 1kOhm = 1000 Ohms. 
English
K-MeteringAn audio level metering format developed by mastering engineer Bob Katz which must be used with a monitoring system set up to a calibrated acoustic reference level. Three VU-like meter scales are provided, differing only in the displayed headroom margin. The K-20 scale is used for source recording and wide dynamic-range mixing/mastering, and affords a 20dB headroom margin. The K-14 scale allows 14dB of headroom and is intended for most pop music 
English
K-MeteringAn audio level metering format developed by mastering engineer Bob Katz which must be used with a monitoring system set up to a calibrated acoustic reference level. Three VU-like meter scales are provided, differing only in the displayed headroom margin. The K-20 scale is used for source recording and wide dynamic-range mixing/mastering, and affords a 20dB headroom margin. The K-14 scale allows 14dB of headroom and is intended for most pop music 
English
K-WeightingA form of electrical filter which is designed to mimic the relative sensitivity of the human ear to different frequencies in terms of pereceived loudness. It is broadly similar to the A-Weighting curve, except that it adds a shelf 
English
Latency (cf. Delay)The time delay experienced between a sound or control signal being generated and it being auditioned or taking effect, measured in seconds. 
English
Lay LengthThe distance along the length of a cable over which the twisted core wires complete one complete turn. Shorter lay lengths provide better rejection of electromagnetic interference, but make the cable less flexible and more expensive. 
English
LCDLiquid Crystal Display. 
English
LEDLight Emitting Diode. A form of solid state lamp. 
English
LFOLow Frequency Oscillator, often found in synths or effects using modulation. 
English
Lightpipesee ADAT Lightpipe. 
English
LimiterAn automatic gain-control device used to restrict the dynamic range of an audio signal. A Limiter is a form of compressor optimised to control brief, high level transients with a ratio greater than 10:1. 
English
Line-levelA nominal signal level which is around -10dBV for semi-pro equipment and +4dBu for professional equipment. 
English
LinearA device where the output is a direct multiple of the input with no unwanted distortions. 
English
LKFSsee LUFS 
English
LoadAn electrical load is a circuit that draws power from another circuit or power supply. The term also describes reading data into a computer system. 
English
Local On/OffA function to allow the keyboard and sound generating section of a keyboard synthesizer to be used independently of each other. 
English
LogicA type of electronic circuitry used for processing binary signals comprising two discrete voltage levels. 
English
LoomA number of separate cables bound together for neatness and convenience. 
English
LoopThe process of defining a portion of audio within a DAW, and configuring the system to replay that portion repeatedly. Also, a circuit condition where the output is connected back to the input. 
English
LoudnessThe perceived volume of an audio signal. 
English
Loudness WarsThe practice of trying to make each new commercial music release sound subjectively louder than any previous release, on the misguided notion that louder is more exciting and results in more sales. A relationship between the average loudness of 45rpm singles and sales was noticed in America from jukebox plays, and that led to the first loudness war. However, the advent of the CD really ramped up the situation, with music becoming ever-more dynami 
English
Loudness WarsThe practice of trying to make each new commercial music release sound subjectively louder than any previous release, on the misguided notion that louder is more exciting and results in more sales. A relationship between the average loudness of 45rpm singles and sales was noticed in America from jukebox plays, and that led to the first loudness war. However, the advent of the CD really ramped up the situation, with music becoming ever-more dynami 
English
Loudness-NormalisationThe practice of matching the perceived loudness of different material to a given target loudness value. To accommodate varying peak levels, the medium requires an approporiate headroom margin. Loudness-normalisation is now the default form for HDTV broadcasts, as well as most audio streaming services, although the target loudness level currently varies between different platforms. Loudness-normalisation is measured using the LUFS or LKFS scale. ( 
English
Loudness-NormalisationThe practice of matching the perceived loudness of different material to a given target loudness value. To accommodate varying peak levels, the medium requires an approporiate headroom margin. Loudness-normalisation is now the default form for HDTV broadcasts, as well as most audio streaming services, although the target loudness level currently varies between different platforms. Loudness-normalisation is measured using the LUFS or LKFS scale. ( 
English
Loudspeaker (also Monitor and Speaker)A device used to convert an electrical audio signal into an acoustic sound wave. An accurate loudspeaker intended for critical sound auditioning purposes. 
English
Low Frequency Oscillator (LFO)An oscillator used as a modulation source, usually operating with frequencies below 20Hz. The most common LFO waveshape is the sine wave, though there is often a choice of sine, square, triangular and sawtooth waveforms. 
English
Low-Pass Filter (LPF)A filter which passes frequencies below its cut-off frequency, but attenuates higher frequencies. 
English
Low-range (low, lows)The lower portion of the audible frequency spectrum, typically denoting frequencies below about 1kHz 
English
LSBLeast Significant Byte. If a piece of data has to be conveyed as two bytes, one byte represents high value numbers and the other low value numbers, much in the same way as tens and units function in the decimal system. The high value, or most significant part of the message is called the Most Significant Byte or MSB. 
English
LUFSThe standard measurement of loudness, as used on Loudness Meters corresponding to the ITU-TR BS1770 specification. the acronym stands for \'Loudness Units (relative to) Full Scale. Earlier versions of the specification used LKFS instead, and this label remains in use in America. The K refers to the \'K-Weighting\' filter used in the signal measurement process. 
English
mAbbreviation for milli, meaning a multiplier of 1/1000 (one thousandth). Used as a prefix to other values to indicate magnitude, eg. 1mA = 0.001A. 
English
MAbbreviation for mega, meaning a multiplier of 1,000,000 (one million). Used as a prefix to other values to indicate magnitude, eg. 1MOhm = 1,000,000 Ohms or 1000k Ohms. 
English
Machine HeadA term describing the tuning mechanism of a guitar. 
English
MADIMultichannel Audio Digital Interface. Originally specified by the Audio engineering Society (AES) as AES10 in 1991. This unidirectional digital audio interface shares the same core 24-bit audio and status data format as AES3, but with different \'wrapping\' to contain 56 or 64 synchronous channels at base sample rates, or 28 channels at 96kHz. It can be conveyed over unbalanced coaxial cables, or via optical fibres 
English
« Prev Next »

Your current localization setting

English

Select a language

All of ProZ.com
  • All of ProZ.com
  • Term search
  • Jobs
  • Forums
  • Multiple search