Translation glossary: Paragliding & Free Flight Glossary

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acpulacronym for the European association of paraglider manufacturers, the Association des Constructeurs de Parapente Ultra Legers. Conducted paraglider homologations prior to AFNOR. 
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active flyingin essence, flying with feel. Keeping constant brake input (say 20%) in flight and normalising any noticeable loss of wing pressure by timely operation of the corresponding brake. Anticipating and dampening any surges and roll oscillations detrimental to efficient flight. Applying plenty of weight shift where needed and generally \"getting loose\" in the harness. 
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Actual Wing areaSpan x average chord. 
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Advention fogFormed when a humid air mass moves in light to moderate winds over a cold region such as the sea. This type of fog is commonly found in ocean territory and coastal regions. 
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AerodynamicsThe study of the movement of a body through the air, such as a paraglider\'s wing. 
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AFNORA french certification agency. Beginner pilots usually fly AFNOR STANDARD wings. Advance pilots may fly AFNOR Performance wings or Competition wings. 
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AglAbbreviation for above ground level. 
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aglacronym for Above Ground Level. 
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air timethe accumulated flight time of a pilot or equipment as measured from the beginning of the launch phase, during free flight and until the aircraft comes to rest after landing. 
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aircrafta machine or device that is capable of flight through the atmosphere. In the context of paragliding, the glider and harness combined. 
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Aircraft ApproachForming a U-shape by flying downwind, crosswind then head wind to the landing field. 
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AirfoilA curved surface designed to generate lift when moving through the air. 
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airfoila term used to desribe the curved appearance of a wing\'s surface, whose inherent shape and orientation derives lift. 
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airservices australiaan organisation providing air route facilities, air and ground traffic control services, as well as fire fighting and search and rescue services in Australia. 
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AirspeedThe velocity of the glider through the air. 
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Airspeed indicatorAn instrument for measuring airspeed. 
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Alpine LaunchForward launch with the pilot having the wing behind his body. 
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AltimeterAn instrument for measuring altitude above a predetermined point. 
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amslacronym for Above Mean Sea Level. 
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AnchoringAssistance by a person during launch. 
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Angle of attackIs the angle the relative wind makes with the chord of an airfoil. 
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angle of attackin flight, the angle of attack (AoA) is essentially the incidental angle at which air hits the wing. All paragliders have a naturally \"positive\" AoA, ie. the leading edge is higher than the trailing edge in flight. The only flight instrument used by the Wright brothers on their first airplane was an angle of attack indicator. 
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Angle of descentIs the angle your path makes with the horizon and is the same as flight angle. 
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Approach figure -8The landing area is reached by making figure 8 turns before or above the landing field. 
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asacacronym for the Australian Sport Aviation Confederation, the Australian hang gliding and paragliding representative member of the FAI. 
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Aspect ratioRatio of the span to the chord or span divided by surface area. Span x span/actual wing area. 
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aspect ratiothe ratio between maximum span length and mean (average) chord length of a paraglider wing. 
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Ass WipeDownwind landing, still in your seat 
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Asymmetrical CollapseAn uneven collapse of the wing. One side of the wing is inflated and the collapsed part is deflated. 
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Atmospheric pressureThe atmosphere\'s mass downward by gravity, measured in Hectopascals (hPa), or formerly in Millibars (mb). 
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Attitude angleIs the angle between the chord of the wing and the horizon. It is positive above and negative below the said horizon. 
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Average rateIs a constant at which the air\'s temperature drops with altitude by 0.65 C per 100 meters. 
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Bank angleThe angle the wings make with the horizontal in a roll. 
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Beaufort ScaleObserved effects of the wind described by a British captain. 
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Bernoulli\'s principlePhysical principle formulated by Daniel Bernoulli that states that as the speed of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) increases the pressure within the fluid decreases. 
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big earsA descent maneuver in which a paraglider’s wingtips are intentionally collapsed, reducing the surface area, and lift, of the wing. The deflated tips hanging below the wing may suggest ears to the anthropomorphically-minded. There is no comparable technique for hang gliders. 
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Big EarsIntentional collapse of the wing tips while in flight. 
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Big EarsA technique to increse one\'s descent rate by folding in the wing tips. 
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biwingualCompetent in flying both hang gliders and paragliders. 
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blown outToo damn much wind. Since a paraglider flies incredibly slowly, winds of 25 mph can result in a paraglider going nowhere, with a hang glider being able to handle winds only slightly stronger. Better just hike back down if it’s really honkin’. See parked. 
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bounceA very hard landing in a paraglider. For related hang glider term 
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BrakesThe controls of a paraglider that pull down the trailing edge. 
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bullet thermalA very fast, compressed, sharp-edged thermal, typically found on high-pressure days. 
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bump toleranceAn acquired ability to fly in and withstand rough, thermic air. 
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Buys Ballot\'s LawIn the Northern Hemisphere, if one stands with his back to the wind the area of low pressure is to his left. In the Southern Hemisphere the reverse is true. 
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CamberThe amount of curvature on the upper surface of an airfoil. 
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camberin the context of an airfoil, the cross sectional curvature of the wing. The inherent arch in the shape along the chord. In a paraglider, braking changes wing camber. 
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Camel\'s backWaterbag with a tube for inflight use. 
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CanopyThe material or \"sail\" of a paraglider that forms the airfoil or wing. 
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cao 95.8Civil Aviation Order part 95 section 95.8 issue 3, exemption from the provisions of the CARs enabling hang gliders and paragliders to be flown legally in Australia. 
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