mis en liquidation judiciaire par résolution

09:28 Jun 1, 2012
French to English translations [PRO]
Bus/Financial - Law (general) / Bankruptcy/insolvency
French term or phrase: mis en liquidation judiciaire par résolution
In relation to my previous question (see http://www.proz.com/kudoz/french_to_english/law:_contracts/4...

si le Constructeur fait faillite ou devient insolvable, ou ses biens ont été mis sous séquestre, ou, si étant une société, il est mis en liquidation judiciaire par résolution ou par ordonnance (autre que liquidation volontaire pour cause de fusion ou de restructuration)....

Thanks in advance for any help.
Sarah Bessioud
Germany
Local time: 16:13


Summary of answers provided
4 +2put into court-supervised winding-up by (members') resolution
Adrian MM. (X)
4Court warrant - based liquidation
Salih YILDIRIM
5 -2(members') voluntary winding up
Daryo
2 +1put into court-supervised liquidation by (court) resolution or by court ordery
Nikki Scott-Despaigne
3to put into official receivership
Stéphanie Warren
4 -1liquidation ordered by resolution
Cyril B.
3compulsory liquidation by resolution
mimi 254
Summary of reference entries provided
Liquidation judiciaire
writeaway

Discussion entries: 6





  

Answers


23 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): -1
liquidation ordered by resolution


Explanation:
as it's the way it's ordered that seems important

Cyril B.
France
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in FrenchFrench
PRO pts in category: 34

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  writeaway: meaning what exactly?
1 hr

neutral  Daryo: a "resolution" is taken INSIDE the company. It's odd to say the company is giving orders to itself!
14 hrs

disagree  AllegroTrans: this is self-contradictory
1 day 23 hrs
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46 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
to put into official receivership


Explanation:
To put into official receivership

Stéphanie Warren
Local time: 16:13
Native speaker of: Native in FrenchFrench

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  writeaway: that's redressement judiciaire
47 mins
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2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
compulsory liquidation by resolution


Explanation:
http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/cd-dgc.nsf/eng/h_cs03935.html

www.hmrc.gov.uk/manuals/insmanual/ins1510.htm

http://www.howtolaw.co.nz/html/ml066.asp

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Note added at 2 hrs (2012-06-01 11:34:50 GMT)
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or compulsory liquidation decided by (special)resolution

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Note added at 2 hrs (2012-06-01 11:35:44 GMT)
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A petition for the compulsory winding up of a company (4.7 IR 1986) will generally be presented by

the company or its directors (if it has been decided by special resolution that the company be wound up by the Court)
any creditor or creditors (sometimes when the issue of a Statutory Demand has not produced payment of the debt within three weeks)
the supervisor if the company is subject to a voluntary arrangement
the administrator of a company in administration if compulsory liquidation is the exit route chosen from the administration
http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/manuals/insmanual/ins1510.htm


mimi 254
Local time: 15:13
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in FrenchFrench
PRO pts in category: 200

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  writeaway: it's the stuff found in most Articles of Association, so is highly researchable on the www.
2 hrs
  -> Thanks

neutral  philgoddard: What about "judiciaire"?
5 hrs
  -> "Compulsory" suggests ordered by the court ("judiciaire")

neutral  Nikki Scott-Despaigne: Edited: No direct correlation between FR and UK. "Compulsory" suggests ordered by the court ("judiciaire") : agree. "Resolution" - in English - suggests the company has taken the initiative. In Fr "résolution" diff. meaning. See my post and findings.
7 hrs
  -> Thanks

agree  CHAKIB ROULA (X)
8 hrs
  -> Thanks

disagree  Daryo: As logical as saying "he was suicided". A "resolution" is part of (leading to) a voluntary winding-up/liquidation. "Compulsory liquidation" would mean it's imposed by "court order" or by an injunction or administrative decision.. Read refs. carefully
12 hrs
  -> A petition for the compulsory winding up of a company (4.7 IR 1986) will generally be presented by

disagree  AllegroTrans: totally agree with Daryo
1 day 21 hrs
  -> A petition for the compulsory winding up of a company (4.7 IR 1986) will generally be presented by
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9 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
Court warrant - based liquidation


Explanation:
Imho

Salih YILDIRIM
United States
Local time: 10:13
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in TurkishTurkish
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1 day 9 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +2
put into court-supervised winding-up by (members') resolution


Explanation:
Court-supervised triggered by members' resolution may get round the conundrum of a compulsory court-ordered winding-up.

If the société is a partnership, the liquidation would strictly need to turn into a dissolution, but winding-up again might do the trick.

Daryo makes an interesting ex-Yugoslavia point. As the country under Marshal Tito was a shining, paradigm example of a mixed economy, there might well have also been a voluntary vs. compulsory liquidation divide.



    Reference: http://www.proz.com/kudoz/french_to_english/finance_general/...
Adrian MM. (X)
Local time: 16:13
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 858

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  AllegroTrans: yes, this solves the riddle and conserves the "reality" of a procedure which is quite obviouisly not the same as in England or USA
13 hrs
  -> Thanks.

agree  Yvonne Gallagher
21 hrs
  -> Thanks, again.

neutral  Nikki Scott-Despaigne: In France, the "résolution" is made by the court. See my post which suggests this reading likely and makes sense in "liquidation judiciaire" with "resolution by the corut" and "court order" in original. All been barking up wrong tree?
2 days 10 hrs
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3 days 19 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 2/5Answerer confidence 2/5 peer agreement (net): +1
put into court-supervised liquidation by (court) resolution or by court ordery


Explanation:
Very low confidence level as I am not sure of this at all. However, the phrase "liqudiation judiciaire par résolution" may not have anything at all to do with a resolution made during a meeting of the company's members. It may be everything to do with following an unsuccessful receivership of the company.

After checking on Google again, I considered that just 2,200 hits for "liquidation judiciare par résolution" (LJPR : my abbreviation) was a surprisingly low result and that perhpas it would be helpful to consider other options. Take this example and you will see why I have made this suggestion.

http://ecoveillepc.actufax.fr/article-1668-tribunal-de-niort...

"26/11/2010
Deux-Sèvres
Tribunal de Niort
[…] Liquidation judiciaire par résolution du plan de redressement : Hervé Churin boulangerie à Villiers-en-Plaine, John Mc Hugh à Gourgé. (source : Nouvelle République)"


Might "résolution" have another meaning we have not entertained yet at all?
Might it not mean "résolution du plan de redressement"?

Perhpas you should check with your client. If this is in fact the true sense of "résolution" then the member's meeting thing is neither here nor there.

Other examples of LJPR :

http://netbois.fordaq.com/fordaq/Redressements_et_Liquidatio...

PAR RESOLUTION DU PLAN ADOPTE :

"14/06/11 97 LAMY JACQUES FRANCOIS Fabrication d’autres meubles et industries connexes de l’ameublement Date : 01 Février 2011. Autre jugement prononçant. 326 181 872 RCS Saint-Pierre-de-la-Réunion. LAMY (Jacques, François). Adresse : 318 rue Alexandre-Bègue 97416 La Chaloupe. Complément de jugement : Jugement prononçant la liquidation judiciaire par résolution du plan adopté par jugement du 10/11/2009"

PAR RESOLUTION DU PLAN DE REDRESSEMENT..., .... RESOLUTION DU PLAN ADOPTE

"30/12/11 97 MEUBLES EXOTIQUES Fabrication de meubles de bureau et de magasin Date : 18 Novembre 2011. Jugement prononçant la résolution du plan de redressement et la liquidation judiciaire. MEUBLES EXOTIQUES. Forme : S.A.R.L. Activité : fabrication de meubles de tous styles. Adresse : Zone Industrielle de Kaweni 97600 Mamoudzou. Complément de jugement : Jugement prononçant la résolution du plan de redressement judiciaire, mettant fin à la mission de Maître BADAT (Houssen), administrateur judiciaire, commissaire à l'exécution du plan et prononçant l'ouverture d'une liquidation judiciaire n° 2011/66".

RESOLUTION DU PLAN DE PLAN DE REDRESSEMENT..., PLAN DE CONTINUATION

"08/02/11 97 PLAST ALU MENUISERIE Travaux de menuiserie bois et PVC Date : 27 Octobre 2010. Jugement prononçant la résolution du plan de redressement et la liquidation judiciaire. 445 345 929 RCS Saint-Denis-de-la-Réunion. S.A.R.L. PLAST ALU MENUISERIE. Forme : S.A.R.L. Activité : non précisée. Adresse : 7 rue Henri-Cornu immeuble Rodrigues 2, Technopole 97490 Sainte-Clotilde. Complément de jugement : Jugement prononçant la résolution du plan de continuation et la liquidation judiciaire sous le régime de droit commun."

When I read through these examples, it streikes me that the "résolution" refers to a "plan" in which case it has nothing at all to do with member's meetings etc.
What is the sense of "résolution" here then? With this uncertainty, I think contacting the client to see what is being referred to, what has been "résolu" would be the only intelligent thing to do.

Résolution may be something ruled upon by the court. See this article below for an example. This reading is conceivable from the original in the question here ": mise en liquidation judiciaire par RESOLUTION ou par ORDONNANCE". It does rather read that the court is doing the resolving and the ordering! That interpretation would completely change the angle we havve been taking on it until now.

http://www.village-justice.com/articles/resolution-redressem...


http://www.village-justice.com/articles/resolution-redressem...

My suggestion reads oddly, I know, but does account for a situation where the court is doing the resolving and the orerding.
Low confidence level, although it really makes sense to me now, as I have not come across this before.





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Note added at 3 days19 hrs (2012-06-05 04:53:44 GMT)
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Court orderY : that's new to me too!!!

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Note added at 3 days20 hrs (2012-06-05 05:46:44 GMT)
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This time a Google search with : [liquidation "résolution du plan" definition]
http://www.s409284624.onlinehome.fr/definitions.html
Here under « procédure de sauvegarde » for example :
« S'il est constaté, pendant l'exécution du plan de sauvegarde, la cessation des paiements du débiteur, le tribunal prononce sa liquidation judiciaire et la résolution du plan. Dans le cadre de cette nouvelle procédure, les créanciers ne seront pas tenus de déclarer leurs créances. »

http://www.dictionnaire-juridique.com/definition/plan-de-ces...
Here under the definition for « plan de cession » :
« A l'exception des décisions mentionnées à l'article L. 623-6 II et III du code de commerce, le délai d'appel des décisions, tel le jugement statuant sur une demande de résolution du plan de cession, est de dix jours à compter de la notification qui en est faite aux parties. (chambre commerciale, 13 avril 2010, pourvoi n°08-21825, BICC n°727 du 15 septembre 2010 et Legifrance). Consulter la note de M. Lienard référencée dans la Bibliographie ci-après. »

www.legifrance.gouv.fr
Code de Commerce
Article L626-27 En savoir plus sur cet article...
Modifié par Ordonnance n°2008-1345 du 18 décembre 2008 - art. 63
I.-En cas de défaut de paiement des dividendes par le débiteur, le commissaire à l'exécution du plan procède à leur recouvrement conformément aux dispositions arrêtées. Il y est seul habilité.

Le tribunal qui a arrêté le plan peut, après avis du ministère public, en décider la résolution si le débiteur n'exécute pas ses engagements dans les délais fixés par le plan.

Lorsque la cessation des paiements du débiteur est constatée au cours de l'exécution du plan, le tribunal qui a arrêté ce dernier décide, après avis du ministère public, sa résolution et ouvre une procédure de redressement judiciaire ou, si le redressement est manifestement impossible, une procédure de liquidation judiciaire.

Le jugement qui prononce la résolution du plan met fin aux opérations et à la procédure lorsque celle-ci est toujours en cours. Sous réserve des dispositions du deuxième alinéa de l'article L. 626-19, il fait recouvrer aux créanciers l'intégralité de leurs créances et sûretés, déduction faite des sommes perçues, et emporte déchéance de tout délai de paiement accordé.
II.-Dans les cas mentionnés aux deuxième et troisième alinéas du I, le tribunal est saisi par un créancier, le commissaire à l'exécution du plan ou le ministère public. Il peut également se saisir d'office.
III.-Après résolution du plan et ouverture de la nouvelle procédure, les créanciers soumis à ce plan sont dispensés de déclarer leurs créances et sûretés. Les créances inscrites à ce plan sont admises de plein droit, déduction faite des sommes déjà perçues.

Article L631-20-1 En savoir plus sur cet article...
Créé par Ordonnance n°2008-1345 du 18 décembre 2008 - art. 85
Par dérogation aux dispositions du troisième alinéa de l'article L. 626-27, lorsque la cessation des paiements du débiteur est constatée au cours de l'exécution du plan, le tribunal qui a arrêté ce dernier décide, après avis du ministère public, sa résolution et ouvre une procédure de liquidation judiciaire.


Article R626-48 En savoir plus sur cet article...
Modifié par Décret n°2009-160 du 12 février 2009 - art. 38
En application du I de l'article L. 626-27, le tribunal est saisi aux fins de résolution du plan par voie de requête ou, le cas échéant, dans les formes et selon la procédure prévue à l'article R. 631-3 ou R. 631-4. Il statue dans les conditions de l'article L. 626-9, le commissaire à l'exécution du plan étant entendu ou dûment appelé et présentant son rapport en lieu et place de celui de l'administrateur.
Lorsque le tribunal décide la résolution du plan en application du troisième alinéa du I de l'article L. 626-27, il ouvre, dans le même jugement, une procédure, selon le cas, de redressement judiciaire ou de liquidation judiciaire du débiteur.
Le jugement est signifié à la diligence du greffier dans les huit jours de son prononcé aux personnes qui ont qualité pour interjeter appel, à l'exception du ministère public.
Il est communiqué aux personnes mentionnées à l'article R. 621-7.
Le jugement qui décide la résolution du plan fait l'objet des publicités prévues à l'article R. 621-8.


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Note added at 3 days20 hrs (2012-06-05 05:50:42 GMT)
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SOunds very much like there has been a "plan de redressement/sauvegarde/continuation", whatever. The Code de Commerce references indicate some of the situations in which the court can make a "résolution".

I have very little doubt now that one of these situations is being referred to. The term "resolution" should be eratined, however, I would vote some form of words to make it clear that this is a rsolution of the court, just as the order is a court order, in order to make it perfectly clear that this is nothing to do with a member's resolution.

Consider my confidence level notched up from 2 to 3!!!

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Note added at 3 days20 hrs (2012-06-05 05:56:50 GMT)
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"eratined"? (Nervous today as I have an exam this afternoon!) Should read "retained".

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Note added at 3 days21 hrs (2012-06-05 06:37:16 GMT)
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If this meeaning is accepted, then perhaps rather than the term "resolution" in English, which could be considered as a false friend, in view of the potential confusion in context, then perhaps one of the following terms may be adopted :

revocation, termination, cancellation, withdrawal

See also : http://www.dictionnaire-juridique.com/definition/resolution....

I like "revocation", offers are revoked, a plan can be too.

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Note added at 3 days21 hrs (2012-06-05 07:10:36 GMT)
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"compulsory winding-up by revocation (of the plan and/or by the court) or by court order"

Nikki Scott-Despaigne
Local time: 16:13
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 443

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Peter Shortall: I agree with your final comments about the meaning of "résolution", it does mean cancellation. What is cancelled is the "plan de redressement" (reorganisation/recovery plan). Liquidation is ordered when the recovery plan has failed.
2611 days
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15 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): -2
(members') voluntary winding up


Explanation:
To make it shorter, you need to look at the whole of:
"liquidation judiciaire par résolution ou par ordonnance"
which gives:
"voluntary or compulsory winding-up"

"liquidation judiciaire par résolution"="voluntary winding-up" decided voluntarily by the business itself, by a resolution taken by members of the company,

"liquidation judiciaire par ordonnance"="compulsory winding-up" imposed by a state authority - by a decision of a Court or possibly by Companies House in UK .



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Note added at 13 days (2012-06-14 23:11:47 GMT)
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The final reference is the Law as published by the Parliament:

Extracts from: Companies Act 2006

[http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2006/46/section/228/enac...]

“Part V Winding Up(i) Preliminary

211 Modes of winding up
(1)The winding up of a company may be either—
(a)by the court; or
(b)voluntary; or
(c)subject to the supervision of the court.

(2)......
-----
(ii) Winding Up by the Court
Petition for Winding Up and Effects thereof
- - - -
Consequences of Winding-up Order


(iii) Voluntary Winding Up
Resolutions for
, and Commencement of, Voluntary Winding Up

278.Circumstances in which company may be wound up voluntarily

Provisions applicable to a Members' Voluntary Winding Up

284.Provisions applicable to a members' winding up
------"

or if you don't fancy wading through tens of pages of legalese

there is pretty good entry in Wikipedia giving a wider view of the subject of ending the existence of company.

“In law, liquidation is the process by which a company (or part of a company) is brought to an end, and the assets and property of the company redistributed. Liquidation is also sometimes referred to as winding-up or dissolution,”

Liquidation may either be compulsory (sometimes referred to as a creditors' liquidation) or voluntary (sometimes referred to as a shareholders' liquidation, although some voluntary liquidations are controlled by the creditors, see below).
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquidation]


Example sentence(s):
  • si étant une société, il est mis en liquidation judiciaire par résolution ou par ordonnance
  • if, being a company, it is subjected to voluntary or compulsory winding-up

    Reference: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.insol...
Daryo
United Kingdom
Local time: 15:13
Native speaker of: Native in SerbianSerbian, Native in FrenchFrench
PRO pts in category: 171

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Nikki Scott-Despaigne: Note in En, a "compulsory winding up" can occur upon petition by the company, following a directors meeting :http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/manuals/insmanual/ins1510.htm In context, meaning of "résolution" in Fr not same as "resolution" in En. Cf my post. Not vol
6 hrs
  -> Look at the wording of the Companies Act rather than comments; This is the ONLY ambiguous comment you'll find.

disagree  Germaine: the question is for liquidation judiciaire par résolution ou par ordonnance (autre que liquidation volontaire. i.e. forced liquidation vs. voluntary liquidation. Liquidation judiciaire par résolution = board/members asks the court to proceed
2 days 22 hrs
  -> WHERE is the contradiction? "Liquidation judiciaire par résolution = board/members asks the court to proceed" YES!!! So board members do it on their own volition, that’s why it’s called VOLUNTARY as opposed to COMPULSORY i.e. IMPOSED by the court)
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Reference comments


22 mins
Reference: Liquidation judiciaire

Reference information:
La liquidation judiciaire intervient sur décision du tribunal qui constate d'une part la cessation de paiements c'est-à-dire lorsque le passif exigible est supérieur à l'actif disponible de l'entreprise, et l'impossibilité de son redressement.
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquidation

Liquidation judiciaire en droit français
La liquidation d'une société est l'opération qui consiste par un tribunal à vendre les actifs d'une société en faillite, et de mettre fin à l'existence de cette société. En France, les bases de cette procédure sont énoncées dans le code de commerce, livre VI, titre IV, et est exécutée en partie devant le tribunal de commerce.
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquidation_judiciaire_en_droit...

writeaway
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 617
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