deduction to

English translation: for subsequent deduction of

GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:deduction to
Selected answer:for subsequent deduction of
Entered by: B D Finch

18:54 Jul 13, 2019
English language (monolingual) [PRO]
Social Sciences - Social Science, Sociology, Ethics, etc. / Cultural Studies, Marxism
English term or phrase: deduction to
So we have to say that when we talk of ‘the base’, we are talking of a process and not a state. And we cannot ascribe to that process certain fixed properties for subsequent deduction to the variable processes of the superstructure.

(Raymond Williams, "Base and Superstructure in Marxist Cultural Theory", New Left Review, 1973)

What do you make of "deduction to" in this sentence?
MF Kalfat
Local time: 15:15
for subsequent deduction of
Explanation:
Explanation:
I think that Williams just used the wrong preposition here. He is saying that you cannot deduce the "variable processes of the superstructure" by using an invalid procedure of ascribing fixed properties to the process of the base and then using them to make deductions about the superstructure.

So, while the base gives rise to the superstructure, it doesn't fully determine it. By understanding changes occurring in the base, you cannot predict the subsequent changes in the superstructure. This is part of his argument against thinking of Marxism as deterministic.

The passage continues:

"We have to revalue ‘determination’ towards the setting of limits and the exertion of pressure, and away from a predicted, prefigured and controlled content. We have to revalue ‘superstructure’ towards a related range of cultural practices, and away from a reflected, reproduced or specifically dependent content. And, crucially, we have to revalue ‘the base’ away from the notion of a fixed economic or technological abstraction, and towards the specific activities of men in real social and economic relationships, containing fundamental contradictions and variations and therefore always in a state of dynamic process."




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Note added at 22 hrs (2019-07-14 17:39:22 GMT)
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While I can forgive Marx for such things, given the times when he was writing, I think that Williams can be criticised for failing to use gender-inclusive language!

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Note added at 4 days (2019-07-18 10:26:35 GMT) Post-grading
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As katsy has pointed out below, my criticism of Williams' use of the word "men" rather than a gender-neutral term was wrong and the use of gender-neutral language is more recent than I had remembered it to be. In checking that out, I also came across the fact that "man" was originally a gender-neutral term.
Selected response from:

B D Finch
France
Local time: 15:15
Grading comment
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



SUMMARY OF ALL EXPLANATIONS PROVIDED
4 +2for subsequent deduction of
B D Finch
3 +1reaching of conclusions by reasonign/inference
Juan Arturo Blackmore Zerón
3 -2conclusion
Aline Amorim


Discussion entries: 1





  

Answers


24 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +1
reaching of conclusions by reasonign/inference


Explanation:
... subsequent reaching of conclusions by reasoning/inference to/on the variable processes of the superstructure.

Juan Arturo Blackmore Zerón
Mexico
Local time: 08:15
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Spanish

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  GILOU
1 day 12 hrs
  -> Thanks GILOU!
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37 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): -2
conclusion


Explanation:
A deduction is a reduction in taxable income, which thereby lowers the amount of taxes owed. Federal, state, and local tax codes determine what kinds of items or expenses are deductible and which taxpayers are eligible for deductions.



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Note added at 57 minutos (2019-07-13 19:51:39 GMT)
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late 14c., "deduction or conclusion reached by reasoning," from Old French conclusion "conclusion, result, outcome," from Latin conclusionem (nominative conclusio), noun of action from past participle stem of concludere (see conclude). Also, from late 14c. "the end" (usually of speech or writing), "closing passages of a speech or writing."
https://www.thesaurus.com/browse/in conclusion

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Note added at 58 minutos (2019-07-13 19:52:45 GMT)
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inference - a conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning.

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Note added at 1 dia 6 minutos (2019-07-14 19:00:26 GMT)
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The process of learning something by considering a general set of facts and thinking about how something specific relates to them:
Through a process of deduction, the detectives discovered the identity of the killer.
All we can do is make deductions from the available facts.

the process of learning something by considering a general set of facts and thinking about how something specific relates to them:

Sherlock Holmes was famous for making clever deductions.




    Reference: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/deduction
    Reference: http://https://www.collinsdictionary.com/pt/dictionary/engli...
Aline Amorim
Brazil
Local time: 10:15
Native speaker of: Native in PortuguesePortuguese

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Daryo: You have to know some basics of Marxisme to deal with this one - nowhere near anything to do with "a reduction in taxable income"
5 hrs

disagree  B D Finch: Just a basic knowledge of philosophy and/or logic would help here.//That's not a very accurate definition.
21 hrs
  -> the process of reaching a decision or answer by thinking about the known facts, or the decision that is reached:
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22 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +2
for subsequent deduction to
for subsequent deduction of


Explanation:
Explanation:
I think that Williams just used the wrong preposition here. He is saying that you cannot deduce the "variable processes of the superstructure" by using an invalid procedure of ascribing fixed properties to the process of the base and then using them to make deductions about the superstructure.

So, while the base gives rise to the superstructure, it doesn't fully determine it. By understanding changes occurring in the base, you cannot predict the subsequent changes in the superstructure. This is part of his argument against thinking of Marxism as deterministic.

The passage continues:

"We have to revalue ‘determination’ towards the setting of limits and the exertion of pressure, and away from a predicted, prefigured and controlled content. We have to revalue ‘superstructure’ towards a related range of cultural practices, and away from a reflected, reproduced or specifically dependent content. And, crucially, we have to revalue ‘the base’ away from the notion of a fixed economic or technological abstraction, and towards the specific activities of men in real social and economic relationships, containing fundamental contradictions and variations and therefore always in a state of dynamic process."




--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 22 hrs (2019-07-14 17:39:22 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

While I can forgive Marx for such things, given the times when he was writing, I think that Williams can be criticised for failing to use gender-inclusive language!

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 4 days (2019-07-18 10:26:35 GMT) Post-grading
--------------------------------------------------

As katsy has pointed out below, my criticism of Williams' use of the word "men" rather than a gender-neutral term was wrong and the use of gender-neutral language is more recent than I had remembered it to be. In checking that out, I also came across the fact that "man" was originally a gender-neutral term.

B D Finch
France
Local time: 15:15
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 12

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Michael Confais (X)
1 day 3 hrs
  -> Thanks Michael

agree  katsy: but I think you are harsh about the non-use of gender-inclusive language! Women's Lib was very very new, and even (as I recall) to speak e.g. of a child as 'he or she', or (shock horror) 'she' was pretty d** revolutionary!Still, beside the point here ;-)
2 days 1 hr
  -> Thanks katsy. I think you are right, it's incredible how recent the introduction of gender-neutral language is.
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