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Thread poster: Adnan Özdemir

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~ Mar 1

--Alıntı--

"Wann wurde Asbest verbaut und warum ist das wichtig?"

*-*1x


Asbestfasern mancher Asbestarten werden schon durch leichte Erschütterungen freigesetzt. Andere Fasern geraten wiederum in den Luftraum, sobald das Material, an das sie gebunden sind, handwerklich bearbeitet wird. Die Fasern können auf diesem Wege schnell in den Luftraum, die Atemwege und in die Lunge geraten, wo sie sich schließlich festsetzen.

Befindet sich Asbest immer Altbau?

Es ist generell nicht einfach, Asbest zu identifizieren. Da vor einer Asbestsanierung allerdings auch Proben genommen werden müssen, muss zuvor zumindest ein Verdacht vorhanden sein. Insbesondere in einem Altbau kann Asbest oftmals verbaut sein. Deswegen ist dort besonders Vorsicht geboten. Zwar ist zum Beispiel Asbestzement relativ ungefährlich. Wer jedoch bei einer Renovierung unversehens auf asbesthaltiges Material stößt, setzt seiner Gesundheit nicht unerheblichen Gefahren aus.

Gibt das Baujahr Indiz auf Asbest im Haus oder auf dem Dach?

Da Asbest mittlerweile verboten und nur im letzten Jahrhundert zu gewissen Zeiten in bestimmten Formen als Bausubstanz verwendet wurde, lässt sich verdächtiges Material leichter ausfindig machen. Bevor Sie also in ein älteres Gebäude einziehen und dort mit den Renovierungsarbeiten beginnen, informieren Sie sich über das Material. Darüber hinaus ist es hilfreich, das Baujahr mit den Zeiten zu vergleichen, wann Asbest in Deutschland verbaut wurde.

Was ist Asbest?

Der Name Asbest kommt aus dem Griechischen und bedeutet „unauslöschlich“ und „unvergänglich“. Es handelt sich um ein Mineral, das sich innerhalb von hunderttausend Jahren aus vulkanischen Serpentingestein gebildet hat. Mehrere Zentimeter lange Fasern bündelten sich dabei zu Adern zusammen, die sich nun in den oberen Erdschichten befinden. Die griechische Ursprungsbedeutung spielt auch auf die Widerstandsfähigkeit des Materials an. Gerade deswegen wurde es gerne in der Baubranche eingesetzt und hat leider auch schwerwiegende gesundheitliche Nebenwirkungen.

Wie gefährlich ist Asbest?

Asbestfasern können durch verschiedenste Einwirkungen in den Luftraum und über die Atemwege in die Lunge geraten. Die Fasern sind in etwa so groß wie Bakterien. Weil das Mineral quasi unzerstörbar ist, kann auch der menschliche Körper sie nicht abbauen. Je nachdem, wieviel vom Körper aufgenommen wird, kann es zu folgenden Krankheiten kommen:

- Pleuraerguss: Flüssigkeitsansammlung in der Pleurahöhle, die zu Brustschmerzen und Kurzatmigkeit führt. Diese Erkrankung kann ein Symptom für Brustfellkrebs sein, verläuft aber in vielen Fällen gutartig.
- Bauch- und Rippenfellkrebs
- Lungenkrebs
- Eierstockkrebs
- Asbestose
- Pleuraplaques: Bindegewebsverdickung, die zu einer Entzündung führt

Die Gefahr der Asbestose besteht, wenn die Atemluftkonzentration der Asbestfasern eine Million Fasern pro Kubikmeter überschreitet. Besonders Handwerker und Bergarbeiter haben mit der Krankheit zu kämpfen. Darüber hinaus kann die Arbeit mit und am Baustoff 20 bis 30 Jahre nach dem Erstkontakt zu einer Krebskrankheit führen. Wann die Krankheit auftritt, kann also auch damit zusammenhängen, wann Asbest verbaut wurde.

Wann wurde Asbest zuerst verbaut?

Im Grunde wurde Asbest schon im 3. Jahrhundert vor Christus in Athen entdeckt und fand schon damals für Dochte Verwendung. Die alten Römer verarbeiteten das Material in Tischtüchern. Im Mittelalter wurde das Material erst einmal nicht mehr verwendet. Erst im frühen 19. Jahrhundert wurden wieder praktische Anwendungszwecke für Asbest gefunden:

- feuerfeste Kleidung für Feuerwehrmänner
- feuerfeste Dächer
- Wärmedämmungen bei Dampfmaschinen

Es sollte bis zum Jahr 1900 dauern, bis der Österreicher Ludwig Hatschek diesen neuen Wirtschaftszweig mit seiner Asbestwarenfabrik und einem Patent zum Erfolg führte. Asbesthaltige Materialien und Produkte wurden seitdem in den unterschiedlichsten Formen und in großer Menge hergestellt:

- Teile für elektrische Geräte zum Beispiel Telefon-Gehäuse
- Blumentöpfe
- Rohre
- Dachwellplatten
- Faserzement für Dachplatten
- Fassadenplatten

Im 2. Weltkrieg wurde Asbest noch für verschiedene andere Zwecke genutzt: Fallschirme für Bomben, Postsäcke, Zahnpasta und Getränkefilter. Zur Dämmung von Rohrleitungen wurde es in U-Booten und Schiffen eingesetzt. Asbest war also fast überall zu finden, den besorgniserregenden gesundheitlichen Schäden war sich die breite Öffentlichkeit aber erst spät bewusst.

Dabei wurde schon um 1900 herum von der Asbestose als Krankheit gesprochen. 1943 wurde Lungenkrebs als Folge bekannt und anerkannt. Trotzdem dauerte es bis 1979, bis Spritzasbest in Westdeutschland verboten wurde. Es sollte noch etwa weitere zehn Jahre dauern, bis die Verwendung in der Schweiz und in Österreich eingedämmt wurde. 1995 folgten endgültige Herstellungs- und Verarbeitungsverbote in Deutschland. Im Jahr 2005 wurde eine EU-weites Verbot durchgesetzt.

Ist es für die Asbestfeststellung wichtig, wann Asbest verbaut wurde?

Wann Asbest in Deutschland verbaut wurde, kann Aufschluss darüber geben, ob sich der potenziell gefährliche Baustoff in Ihrem Gebäude befindet. Wer also ein wenig über die Herkunft, Geschichte und die Art der Verarbeitung Bescheid weiß, kann in dieser Hinsicht schon wesentlich achtsamer sein. Als Baumaterial wurde Asbest vor allem in den 1960er Jahren eingesetzt. Seine Hochphase hatte es jedoch in den 1970ern und es wurde häufig als Asbestzement, aber auch in anderen Formen genutzt.

Wie und wann festgebundenes Asbest verbaut wurde

Beim festgebundenen Asbest sind die Fasern stark an das zugrundeliegende Material gebunden, wie es zum Beispiel beim Asbestzement der Fall ist. Gefährlich wird es, wenn fest gebundenes Asbest unversehens, von unprofessioneller Hand bearbeitet oder durch Witterung, Alterung oder Abnutzung beschädigt wird.

Für Gebäude wurde festgebundenes Asbest bis zu den folgenden Jahren für verschiedenste Bauelemente und häufig in der Form von Asbestzement verwendet:
2

Wenn sich Bauelemente dieser Art in ihrem Gebäude befinden, stellen Sie am besten fest, wann diese verbaut wurden, um das Haus auf Asbesthin zu untersuchen. Asbestfasern, die im Asbestzement und dementsprechend in verschiedenen Bauelementen eingebunden sind, können weitestgehend ungefährlich sein. Auch der Asbestanteil, der durch Witterung und Abnutzung freigesetzt wird, ist oftmals relativ gering. Allerdings sollten Sie kein Risiko eingehen. Eine Asbestsanierung sollten Sie und dürfen Sie nicht selbst vornehmen. Hier besteht nämlich die tatsächliche Gefahr für Sie und Ihre Nachbarschaft, wenn nicht die notwendigen Sicherheitsvorkehrungen getroffen werden. Hierfür müssen Sie ein behördlich zugelassenes Unternehmen beauftragen.

Wie und wann schwachgebundenes Asbest verbaut wurde

Der Anteil von Asbestfasern beim schwachgebundenen Asbest ist sehr hoch und kann schon durch leichte Erschütterungen freigesetzt werden. Verwendet wurde das schwachgebundene Asbest zum Beispiel für verschiedene Asbestpappen, Leichtbauplatten und als Spritzasbest. Insbesondere das Spritzasbest wurde häufig eingesetzt, um Träger, Decken und Wände zu beschichten. Auch für den schwachgebundenen Asbest fanden sich noch zahlreiche andere Anwendungszwecke und Bauteile:
3

Auch hier sollten Sie Baujahr und Asbest-Geschichte abgleichen, um herauszufinden, ob Sie vielleicht sogar verstecktes Asbest im Haushaben, wo Sie es nicht vermuten. Neben den aufgeführten Geräten und Bauteilen, in denen sich schwach gebundenes Asbest befindet, wurde das Material auch für viele Kleingeräte verwendet: Staubsauger, Bügeleisen, Föne, Heizdecken und –kissen, Toaster, Warmhalteplatten. Wann das Asbest hier verbaut wurde, ist dabei entscheidend. Denn heutzutage wird niemand das Material für die Herstellung verwenden. Sollten Sie sich in diesem Punkt jedoch unsicher sein, lässt sich meistens mittels der Gerätetyp-Nummer beim Hersteller das Baujahr erfragen. Insbesondere bei Nachtspeicheröfen sollten Sie besonders darauf achten, denn die Asbestfasern aus den verschiedenen Bauteilen können schnell über den Wärmestrom in die Luft geraten.

Wie bei den festgebundenen müssen Sie auch bei den schwach gebundenen Asbestarten in der Form von Isolierungen und Pappen beachten, dass Sie diese nicht einfach selbst abbauen dürfen und entsorgen dürfen. In diesem Fall müssen Sie also ebenfalls ein fachmännisches und geprüftes Unternehmen beauftragen, welches unter den notwendigen Schutzvorkehrungen die Sanierungsarbeiten durchführt.

Kaynak: https://blog.rathscheck.de/wann-wurde-asbest-verbaut


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--Alıntı--

"Krebserregendes Wundermittel
-
Fünf Fragen, fünf Antworten zu Asbest"



Autor: Helwi Braunmiller - Montag, 19.12.2016, 19:24 Uhr

Die einstige Wunderfaser steht seit Jahrzehnten unter Verdacht. Die Anklage lautet: krebserregend und lungenschädigend.

*-*1e

- Asbest galt bis in die 1990er-Jahre als Wunderwerkstoff: hitzebeständig, wärmedämmend, säureresistent, belastbar.
- Die Mineralfasern kamen seit 1900 grossflächig zum Einsatz insbesondere als Asbestfaserzement Eternit.
- Ab 1990 wurde das Material wegen Gesundheitsschäden verboten.
- Jedoch wird Asbest auch heute noch in Russland, Südafrika, Australien und Kanada gefördert.

Was ist Asbest?

Asbest steht für eine Gruppe natürlicher Mineralfasern, die einige physikalische Eigenschaften teilen. Sie kommen beispielsweise in Brasilien, Kanada, Kolumbien, Südafrika, Russland, Griechenland, Italien und der Türkei vor. Es werden zwei Asbestgruppen unterschieden:

- Serpentin-Asbest (Weissasbest-Chrysotil)
- Amphibol-Asbest: Krokydolith (Blauasbest), Amosit (Braunasbest, Anthophyllith, Aktinolith, Tremolit)

Die Unterscheidung ist wichtig, denn während sich die Lunge sehr schnell wieder vom Serpentin-Asbest befreien kann, bleiben Amphibol-Asbeste in den Lungen und richten dort Schaden an.

Wie gelangt Asbest in den Körper?

Am besten dokumentiert ist die Aufnahme der Asbestfasern über die Luft. Fasern gelangen insbesondere dann in die Luft, wenn asbesthaltige Materialien bearbeitet werden. Bei normaler Abnutzung ist die Luftbelastung zwar messbar, aber nur gering.

Asbestfasern finden sich in geringsten Konzentrationen auch im Trinkwasser. Dorthin gelangen sie durch den Abrieb aus asbesthaltigem Gestein oder aus Asbestzementrohren. Im Gegensatz zur Inhalation gefährdet die Aufnahme von Asbestfasern mit Trinkwasser gemäss heutigem Wissensstand die Gesundheit nicht.

//"Im Lungengewebe lassen sich Asbestfasern (orange) nachweisen."///5l

Was macht Asbest so gefährlich?

Asbestfasern neigen dazu, sich der Länge nach in immer dünnere Fasern aufzuspalten. So können sie gut eingeatmet werden und gelangen in die Tiefen der Lunge bis zu den Lungenbläschen und zum Lungen- und Rippenfell. Dort können sie kaum noch abgebaut oder ausgeschieden werden. In der Folge kommt es zu kleinen Gewebsverletzungen, die zu Entzündungen und schliesslich zu narbigen Verdickungen führen.

Welche gesundheitlichen Folgen hat eine Asbestbelastung?

- Pleuraplaques: Die feinen Asbestfasern dringen weit in die Lungen vor. Dort können sich die Fasern anhäufen. Durch Entzündungen entstehen Vernarbungen und Gewebswucherungen, die man im Röntgenbild erkennen kann. Das Brustfell verdickt sich und verkalkt. Dieser Prozess ist sehr typisch für eine Asbestbelastung und kann deshalb ursächlich gut von anderen Lungenkrankheiten abgegrenzt werden. Die Plaques als gutartige Veränderung lösen normalerweise keine Krankheitssymptome aus.

- Asbestose: Die Asbeststaublunge ist die Folge jahrelanger starker Asbestbelastung, wie sie an vielen Arbeitsplätzen bis in die 1970er-Jahre vorkam. Schon 1953 wurde sie in die Liste der Berufskrankheiten aufgenommen. Dabei vernarbt das Lungengewebe über Jahrzehnte hinweg zunehmend und erschwert die Atmung bis hin zum Tod. Die Vernarbungen stoppen auch dann nicht mehr, wenn die Asbestbelastung vorbei ist. Im fortgeschrittenen Stadium ist die Asbestose als sogenannte Honigwabenlunge erkennbar.

- Maligne Mesotheliome: An den aggressiven Tumoren im Bauch- oder Brustfellbereich erkranken jährlich rund 120 Personen in der Schweiz, oft erst Jahrzehnte nach der Asbestbelastung. Diese Tumorart gilt als Signaltumor, der auf eine erfolgte Asbestexposition hinweist. Auch wenn die Zahl der Neuerkrankungen sinkt: Das maligne Mesotheliom ist die häufigste beruflich verursachte bösartige Tumorerkrankung.

- Lungenkrebs: Bis ein Lungenkrebs aufgrund einer Asbestbelastung ausbricht, vergehen im Mittel 38 Jahre. Der Zusammenhang mit Asbest ist – anders als bei den Mesotheliomen – in vielen Fällen nicht direkt herstellbar. So werden jährlich von der Suva nur rund zehn Fälle als asbestbedingter Lungenkrebs anerkannt. Mindestens 25 Jahre müssen Erkrankte dann berufsbedingt Asbest ausgesetzt gewesen sein. Epidemiologische Studien haben gezeigt, dass die Kombination aus Rauchen und Asbest das Risiko für die Entwicklung eines Lungenkrebses zusätzlich erhöht. Der weitaus grössere Risikofaktor für diesen Krebs ist aber nach wie vor das Rauchen.

Wer ist gefährdet?

Betroffen sind vor allem Arbeiter, die bis 1990 in entsprechenden Industrie- oder Gewerbebetrieben insbesondere mit schwachgebundenem Asbest tätig waren. Je länger und stärker die Belastung, desto höher das Risiko. Für die Allgemeinbevölkerung ist die Gefahr in der Regel sehr gering. Grundsätzlich gilt: Menschen, die viel mit schwachgebundenem Asbest in der Wärmedämmung, im Brandschutz, mit Asbest-Leichtbauplatten, Rückbeschichtungen von Bodenbelägen oder Rohrisolationen gearbeitet haben, tragen ein erhöhtes Risiko. Heute dürfen Arbeiten an diesen Baumaterialien nur noch von zertifizierten Asbestsanierungsfirmen durchgeführt werden. Heimwerker sollten vor allem bei Arbeiten an Fassaden, Wellblatten und Rohren, aber auch beispielsweise an Blumenbehältern aufpassen.

Kaynak: https://www.srf.ch/news/schweiz/fuenf-fragen-fuenf-antworten-zu-asbest


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--Alıntı--

"Uludağ Üniversite Hastanesi Asbest saçıyor"


Halil ATAŞ / Bursa - 16:16 - 28 Şubat 2019

Bursa'da Uludağ Üniversitesi Hastanesi’nde bir süredir tadilat çalışması yapılıyor. Ancak içerisinde kanserojen barındıran asbestli malzemeler sökülmeden tadilata başlanması tepki çekti. Asbest liflerinin hasta sağlığını etkilediğini belirten Asbest Söküm Uzmanı, İş Kazalarıyla ve Meslek Hastalıklarıyla Mücadele Derneği başkanı Alpay Aydın, “Öncelikle kamu binalarında okul, hastane, diğer resmi kurumlar başta olmak üzere, sanayi yapıları insanların yoğun bir şekilde bulundukları yerler olduğundan asbest tespiti yapılmalıdır" dedi.

*-*w1


Bursa’da Uludağ Üniversitesi Hastanesi'nde bir süredir devam eden tadilat çalışmalarının kanserojen barındıran asbestli malzemelerin sökülmeden devam etmesi tepkiyle karşılandı. Asbest Söküm Uzmanı, İş Kazalarıyla ve Meslek Hastalıklarıyla Mücadele Derneği başkanı Alpay Aydın, “Hastane binasının eski bir bina olması itibari ile muhtemel Asbestli malzemeler yalıtım için kullanılmış olacağından bu yerlerde Asbest sökümü ve bertaraf edildikten sonra inşaat işlerine başlanmalıdır” dedi.

“ASBEST TESPİTİ YAPILMALIDIR”

“Bu şekilde bilinçsizce yapılan müdahaleler Asbeste maruz bırakacak” diyen Aydın, şöyle devam etti; “İşin durdurulup önlemlerin alınması gerekiyor. Öncelikle kamu binalarında okul, hastane, diğer resmi kurumlar başta olmak üzere, sanayi yapıları insanların yoğun bir şekilde bulundukları yerler olduğundan asbest tespiti yapılmalıdır”

20 MİLYON LİF YAYABİLİR

Alpay Aydın, açıklamasına şöyle devam etti: “Asbestli yapılarda bulunmak tehlikelidir ancak daha tehlikelisi bilinçsizce müdahale yapılması. Bu durumda ortama 20 milyon lif yayılabilir ve havada askıda kalabilme özelliğinden dolayı o ortamda bulunan kişilerin soluma yolu ile alması ile Asbestosiz hastalığı başta olmak üzere birçok hastalığa sebebiyet verebilir. Asbestli alanlar işaretlemeler yapılarak kırma, delme, kazıma gibi işlemler bu işlemi yapan başta olmak üzere o ortamdaki herkese uzun süre boyunca havada kalacağından ortam hava kalitesi açısından bozucu bir etkisi olacaktır.”

ASBEST GÜNLERCE HAVADA KALIR

Alpay Aydın, “Asbest lifleri havalandığında, ortamdaki hava akımı çok az olsa bile günlerce havada kalırlar. Kapalı bir alanda küçük asbestli malzeme kesimi yapıldığında bile yaklaşık olarak 1 m3 de 20 milyon lif açığa çıkabilmektedir. Kamusal alanlarda kaynakları doğru bir biçimde kullanılması gerekmektedir, Üniversitenin kaynakları ihtiyaçlar doğrultusunda öncelik bu yatırımlara ayrılmalıdır” ifadelerini kullandı.

Kaynak: https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2019/gundem/uludag-universite-hastanesi-asbest-saciyor-3727773/



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--Alıntı--

"When Politics Trumps Science: Why asbestos is still legal in the USA"

by Christopher Gerry - AUGUST 20, 2018

*-*17

Weathering over fifty years’ worth of damning scientific evidence, asbestos, a known carcinogen, appears as resistant to American legislation as it is to fire, electricity, and heat. Asbestos is a naturally occurring fibrous substance with properties that make it an attractive material for use in construction and manufacturing. An overwhelming amount of evidence, however, has linked ingestion or inhalation of microscopic asbestos fibers to cancer—most notably a rare disease called mesothelioma—and no level of asbestos exposure is safe.

Despite these risks, roughly 125 million people worldwide are exposed to asbestos while at work: shipbuilders, miners, electricians, and other blue-collar workers are at particularly high risk. In response, over 50 countries have banned all future uses of asbestos. While these bans must be coupled with the removal of existing asbestos products to be effective, they are a logical and productive first step. The United States, unfortunately, is still crawling.

Scientific evidence and human behavior diverge more frequently than this scientist would like to admit. Public opinion differs significantly from the scientific consensus on many important topics, but public opinion doesn’t seem to be the force that’s standing in the way of meaningful asbestos regulation. Instead, special interests appear to be subverting both scientific evidence and the will of the public. Politicians will need to craft robust legislation that’s capable of withstanding attacks from those who have a vested interest in asbestos’ success.

The ongoing battle in your body

The dangers of asbestos exposure have been known for over half a century. Research from the 1960s led by Dr. Irving Selikoff, who had previously co-developed a revolutionary tuberculosis drug, helped to establish the causal link between asbestos and diseases like mesothelioma and lung cancer. After noticing that a handful of workers from a local asbestos plant were dying of rare lung-related illnesses, Dr. Selikoff conducted several large studies that detailed the consequences of asbestos exposure. He observed that asbestos workers had significantly increased rates of cancer and mortality, and that some patients who had worked with asbestos for less than a week had detectable lung scarring 30 years later.

One of Dr. Selikoff’s most striking observations was the “remarkably high” incidence of mesothelioma. Mesothelioma is a rare (~3,000 cases per year in the United States) but highly lethal cancer of the tissue that lines your internal organs, most commonly the lungs. While most people who are exposed to asbestos will never develop the disease—only 3% of the workers in Dr. Selikoff’s study died of mesothelioma—asbestos accounts for over 80% of mesothelioma cases.

It’s unclear how asbestos exposure leads to mesothelioma, but one hypothesis involves our own immune systems. When inhaled asbestos fibers accumulate in the lungs and cause damage to the surrounding tissue, the body responds via a process called inflammation. This process recruits immune cells to the site of an injury to try to remove the problem and fix the damage that it caused. Inflammation promotes cell healing and growth, but it also generates chemicals that can damage the genetic material of nearby cells. When these “mutated” cells are encouraged to grow, they sometimes do so in an uncontrolled manner that leads to cancer. Short-term inflammation doesn’t cause cancer, but people exposed to asbestos suffer from chronic inflammation that can last for decades because the body is terrible at clearing asbestos fibers from the lungs.

The past battle in the legislature

Laws passed in the 1970s allowed federal authorities to regulate the use, distribution, and manufacture of asbestos. One of the most consequential pieces of legislation in this arena was the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) of 1976, which afforded the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) authority over new commercial chemicals and existing chemicals that posed an “unreasonable risk of injury to health or to the environment.”

Several years of increasingly stiff regulations culminated in the EPA’s attempt to leverage the TSCA to enact an outright ban on almost all asbestos-containing products in 1989. Asbestos mining companies and product manufacturers quickly filed a lawsuit (supported by the Canadian government) challenging the ban, citing the high costs of finding a suitable asbestos alternative.

In the 1991 ruling ‘Corrosion Proof Fittings v. Environmental Protection Agency,’ the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals unanimously rejected most of the EPA’s ban on technical grounds. It held that the EPA had violated the TSCA by not adequately demonstrating that the asbestos ban was the “least burdensome” action that could achieve an acceptable level of risk. In other words, the TSCA required the EPA to minimize the disruption to those being regulated rather than maximize public health benefits. The ruling also stated that the EPA had failed to prove that its proposed asbestos substitutes were safe, despite the overwhelming (and undisputed) dangers of asbestos itself. Asbestos has not been banned in the United States since.

After the defeat of the ban, incremental asbestos legislation continued to churn through Congress. One such bill passed in 2016 was the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, which was the first major amendment to the TSCA. Among other provisions, the Lautenberg Act mandated the EPA to conduct risk assessments of hazardous chemicals and expanded the agency’s power to respond to the results of those studies. The EPA has since declared asbestos to be one of the first 10 chemicals it will evaluate, and it has recently proposed a significant new use rule (SNUR) that aims to curb future manufacturing, importing, and processing of asbestos and asbestos-containing materials.

The upcoming battle in the EPA

The scientific evidence has been strong enough to convince many countries to ban all types of asbestos, so why are American federal agencies still at the “risk assessment” stage? Research is clearly not the problem—the EPA spent 10 years and millions of dollars adding to the already weighty corpus of asbestos research prior to its 1989 ban. Instead, lawmakers have been unable or unwilling to draft legislation strong enough to withstand challenges from lobbyists for the asbestos industry.

The Lautenberg Act was a necessary improvement to the TSCA—the original law couldn’t ban a known carcinogen, after all—but its increased reliance upon the EPA may have made it vulnerable to internal sabotage. President Trump has expressed skepticism about the dangers of asbestos repeatedly and without evidence. His administration’s first EPA Director, Scott Pruitt, was less than eager to discuss asbestos regulation during his confirmation process. And recently, the EPA has decided to ignore the effects of chemicals in the ground, air, or water in their risk evaluations—only direct exposure will be considered.

Despite the common slogan, data rarely speak for themselves. Only time will tell if this new legislation is as strong as the research it’s designed to empower.

▄▄▄
Christopher Gerry is a fifth-year graduate student in the Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology at Harvard University. He currently serves as Co-Editor-in-Chief of the Science in the News blog.

Kaynak: http://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/flash/2018/asbestos-still-legal-usa/


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--Alıntı--

"Asbestos Products"

Asbestos was once used in thousands of products, and the toxin can still be found in certain products today.


Key Points

1 At the height of its use, asbestos could be found in over 3,000 products.

2 The EPA attempted to ban all uses of asbestos in 1989, but it was overturned.

3 Today, up to 1% of asbestos can still be used in certain products.

4 Old and current uses of asbestos products put the public at risk of exposure.

A lot of people think that asbestos is banned in the United States, but the toxin is still legal today. Certain products made or imported into the U.S. can contain asbestos. For the most part, these are products that have historical uses of asbestos. All of this goes back to a 1989 ban on asbestos implemented by the Environmental Protection Agency. The ban was subsequently overturned by a federal court for products that already had a historical use of asbestos; however, the court said that the agency could ban new uses of the material.

But that still leaves a lot of products that might contain asbestos. Note that according to regulations, all of these things must contain 1% or less of asbestos in the products.

Vehicle Parts

A very common use of asbestos today is in vehicle parts – which is one of the reasons why mechanics are so susceptible to asbestos-related diseases such as mesothelioma. This includes products such as brake pads, clutches, and certain types of gaskets.

Note that “vehicle” can include a lot of things beyond just road-vehicles like cars, trucks, and motorcycles. Airplanes, helicopters, and ships can also contain asbestos for various reasons. Basically, anywhere that a part or substance may need to be protected from high friction, heat, or fire, there’s a strong possibility that asbestos may be involved.

Insulation

There are more – and better – types of insulation available today than ever before. However, asbestos can still be found in some types of new insulation, regardless of the alternative options that are on the market.

Since materials produced today are only allowed to contain up to 1% asbestos, modern insulation may be somewhat less likely to lead to exposure than older forms of asbestos, especially if it is properly installed, enclosed, and left undisturbed. However, if doing any sort of remodeling, renovation, construction, or demolition to your home, you will still need to be very careful.

Construction Materials

Certain construction materials manufactured today are likely to have some level of asbestos in them, including things like roofing tiles, prefabricated cement, and corrugated sheeting, and others. These items are most dangerous to anyone who works in construction – however, homeowners and do-it-yourselfers should be aware that these products may contain asbestos, even when brand new.

Every state is different in its requirements around building, renovating, or demolishing a home, especially when it comes to asbestos regulations. Be sure to reach out to your state’s environmental agency to understand the requirements before doing any such work. You may be required to hire a certified asbestos abatement specialist.

Fireproof Clothing

Asbestos is a fibrous material, making it relatively easy to weave into clothing to offer protection from fire and heat. While asbestos is generally banned from all types of clothing by the Consumer Product Safety Commission, the CPSC does allow specialized fireproof clothing to contain asbestos for firefighters and others in very specific professions (such as fireproof mitts for glass blowers).

The good news is that asbestos in any amounts will not be found in the clothing stores of the average individual. Specialized asbestos clothes have to be ordered through certain providers, and in most cases they are available only to those who are part of the specified profession.

Potting Soils

It may sound absurd given that the whole point of potting soil is to provide nutrients to plants, but that very same soil could contain asbestos. Specifically, many potting soils used to contain a substance called vermiculite (also used commonly as an insulation material), which came primarily from a mine in Libby, Montana.

As a silicate mineral, vermiculite is frequently found near asbestos deposits, and the vermiculite mined at Libby was contaminated with asbestos – to the point where the EPA declared the Libby mines and surrounding areas a Superfund site!

Vermiculite is used less often in potting soils today, but it is still used to some degree. No matter where it is mined, the likelihood of vermiculite containing traces of asbestos is very high.


Be Careful of Asbestos Products

There is a misconception in the country that asbestos isn’t a problem anymore, partly because of the belief that it has already been banned. As shown above, however, it is still a danger, and products being made today can still contain this dangerous substance. Hopefully one day it will be banned, but until it is, we need to be on the watch to make sure we don’t become exposed!

So be careful of these asbestos products. If you think you may have asbestos in your home, it’s best to leave it undisturbed. If you do need to disturb it, contact a professional who can do so safely.

And make sure to warn your family and friends about the dangers of asbestos! If you feel you’ve been exposed to asbestos, there is help.

Kaynak: https://www.maacenter.org/asbestos/products/
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WRITTEN BY: Tonya Nelson

Tonya Nelson is an experienced writer and editor, who has published on a wide variety of topics, particularly in the health field. Her bachelor’s degree in magazine journalism from the S.I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University sparked her curiosity for writing stories about environmental and medical issues. As the Managing Editor, Tonya oversees the content development process, ensuring every article and informational page published adheres to MAA Center’s editorial guidelines.


[Edited at 2019-03-01 17:52 GMT]


 

Adnan Özdemir  Identity Verified
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~ Mar 3

--Alıntı--


"Yer: Konya... Kefenleyip gömdüler"


Tolga Yanık/Konya, (DHA) 03.03.2019 - 17:57, Son Güncelleme: 03.03.2019 - 17:58

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KONYA’da bir grup hayvansever, hayvanların insanlar tarafından katledilmesine tepki göstermek için cenaze töreni düzenledi. Temsili ölü hayvan bedenleri, kefenlenerek, yan yana araziye gömüldü.

Şefkat-Der Başkanı Hayrettin Bulan ve bir grup hayvansever, hayvanların insanlar tarafından katledilmesine tepki amacıyla temsili cenaze töreni düzenledi. Toplumun hayvanlara karşı daha duyarlı olmasını isteyen grup, temsili olarak hayvan ölülerini kefenleyip, merkez Karatay ilçesi Tatlıcak Mahallesi’nde boş bir araziye gömdü.

Şefkat-Der Başkanı Hayrettin Bulan, "Bunlar bizim dilsiz dostlarımız. Maalesef insanlarımız bu hayvanlara zarar veriyor. Biri tekmeliyor, diğeri yakıp atıyor, biri üzerinden geçip öldürüyor, bazıları da açlıktan ölüyor. Artık toplumun bu canlılara karşı daha duyarlı olması gerekiyor. Bizde buna dikkat çekmek için çeşitli sebeplerden dolayı hayatını kaybeden hayvanları kefenleyip, düzenlenen törenle defnediyoruz. Artık bu ölümler son bulsun" dedi.

Kaynak: http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/yer-konya-kefenleyip-gomduler-41136395


ADO_YORUM: Bu dünyada; duyarlı, yüreği sevgi dolu insanlar da yaşıyormuş. Ben demin bu haberde bunu gördüm. Varolun.

[Edited at 2019-03-03 20:42 GMT]


 

Adnan Özdemir  Identity Verified
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Local time: 02:56
Member (2007)
German to Turkish
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~ Mar 4

--Alıntı--

"Irreconcilable Differences
A Divided Britain Faces a No-Deal Brexit"



By Jörg Schindler - January 18, 2019 06:22


Can Britain still regain control? After weeks of power struggles and an historic parliamentary defeat for the prime minister, it is unclear if the UK can still agree on a Brexit deal. Or whether a no-deal departure has become inevitable.

//"The article you are reading originally appeared in
... See more
--Alıntı--

"Irreconcilable Differences
A Divided Britain Faces a No-Deal Brexit"



By Jörg Schindler - January 18, 2019 06:22


Can Britain still regain control? After weeks of power struggles and an historic parliamentary defeat for the prime minister, it is unclear if the UK can still agree on a Brexit deal. Or whether a no-deal departure has become inevitable.

//"The article you are reading originally appeared in German in issue 4/2019 (January 19th, 2019) of DER SPIEGEL."//


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Maybe Theresa May does have a sense of humor after all -- and perhaps it is rather darker than people think. On Monday morning, at the beginning of an unprecedented week in United Kingdom history, May was once again addressing the nation. She had chosen Stoke-on-Trent in Staffordshire, right in the middle of the country, for the occasion. The city of 260,000 was once a prosperous steel and coal town -- and it is a Brexit stronghold.

May was standing in a low-slung warehouse beneath some large, insulated pipes and surrounded by stacks of cups, bowls and plates. And she was there to issue one last call to reason. It was one of the most important speeches in the history of the United Kingdom.

And Theresa May was giving it in in a china shop.

It no longer matters what she said in these 20 minutes. On Tuesday and Wednesday of this week, British parliament, and the country's political leaders more broadly, delivered the ultimate proof that reason no longer plays much of a role in the country. "The mother of all parliaments," as the British lower house has been called, seemed content to dramatically humiliate its prime minister only to confirm its trust in her just 24 hours later. What she now intends to do with that trust remains to be seen.

Over two thirds of the lower house -- 432 lawmakers, including 118 from May's own party -- voted "no" to the Brexit agreement she had painstakingly negotiated with the European Union. Such a decisive defeat is unparalleled in modern British history; the MPs didn't just reject May's deal, they pulverized it. This, despite the fact that it was the only deal on the table. Two-and-a-half years after the Brexit referendum, the UK is back where it started.

Should things remain as they are, the country will leave the EU in fewer than 70 days without an agreement, without a transitional period, without a safety net. There is still time to prevent this disaster, which would also be catastrophic for the rest of Europe. But there is nothing currently indicating that this country, united only in its unwillingness to compromise, will pull itself together. Nobody knows what will happen next.

All that's clear is that Britain's European tragedy, which reached its high point in June 2016 with the Brexit referendum, is far from being over. The more time passes, the more the individual factions, camps and regions of the country drift apart.


A Laughing Stock

Brexit, Theresa May said, was to be "a moment of renewal and reconciliation for our whole country." She could hardly have been more wrong. The referendum -- a plebiscite that decided nothing -- has quietly eaten away at the country from inside. And its dogmatic, egomaniacal, petty politicians simply looked on while it happened. The United Kingdom, a country so proud of its exemplary democracy, has willfully transformed itself into a laughing stock.

The size of the political failure and the depth of the people's disgust with the political elite is difficult to understate. It remains to be seen how it will be governed going forward. And who will be in charge.

Theresa May, who has been humiliated more often and more deeply than any British prime minister before her, seems to believe she will still be able to somehow get Brexit across the finish line. By Monday, she must explain how she intends to do so. For the first time in more than two and a half years, she will need to attempt to establish bipartisan consensus. May, who paradoxically always seems stronger the weaker she is, doesn't give up. Even her fiercest rivals now admire her tenacity. But what use is staying power when the battle being fought is a losing one?

Furthermore, much of the mess can be blamed on May herself. After the referendum in June of 2016, which only narrowly went in favor of Brexit, she never tried to reconcile the almost equally large camps of EU-skeptics, EU-supporters and non-voters. There was no big speech, no big gesture. On the contrary, the 48 percent of voters who opted against Brexit, a group that included countless, globally-oriented young men and women, were ridiculed by May as "citizens of nowhere."

Among the many tragedies of Brexit is that just when the UK could have used a leader full of energy, vision and empathy, it received a dithering and uncommunicative bureaucrat. Instead of Churchill it got Chamberlain. May hunkered down with a small circle of confidants in 10 Downing Street and treated Brexit like a finicky brain-teaser. A problem of the mind. Not of the soul.


Fatal Miscalculation

It was a fatal miscalculation, argues political scientist and former Labour lawmaker Tony Wright. Years before the referendum, Wright wrote about an identity crisis afflicting his countrymen and women. The British have "no clear idea about who they are, where they are, or what they are," he wrote in 2002, in an essay called "The End of Britain?"

"Britishness," according to Wright, was a construct created to unify the English, Scots, Welsh and Northern Irish. In the 20th century, he argued, this worked very well, because "war, empire and monarchy provided much of the historical and symbolic glue." As the memory of those grand accomplishments faded and the monarchy entered into crisis, he argued, that glue weakened and, as a result, the United Kingdom entered the 21st century "in deep trouble."

During Tony Blair's government, the Scots, the Welsh and the Northern Irish, but not the English, received their own regional parliaments. Following the 2008-2009 financial crisis, different regions recovered at different speeds, if they recovered at all. Although business was soon booming again in London's financial center, many old industrial areas in England continue suffering to this day. And the austerity subsequently imposed by the country's political leaders has massively exacerbated inequality.

All of this helped revive the English dream of national greatness, with Brussels and the "European superstate" as its scapegoat. It's no accident that the English and Welsh voted in favor of leaving, while the Londoners and Scots voted mostly against it.

"The country is at war with itself," Wright says today. "This culture war was not started by Brexit, but unleased it." Everyone, he argues, is part of it: the old and the young, the urban and the rural, the fearful and the brave, citizens of nowhere and citizens of somewhere. They are fighting over terms like "homeland" and "identity," the kinds of ideas that have strengthened right-wing parties elsewhere in Europe. In the UK, however, the entrenched party system doesn't allow for new political powers to emerge. Instead, Brexit played that role. Like an ulcer, it has become embedded in all parts of the country and in all political parties and now it is destroying them from the inside.

And like an ulcer, it demanded treatment in the form of striving for some form of nationwide consensus. Instead, though, Theresa May walled herself off and treated Brexit like some kind of secret commando mission. She trusted the Labour Party under the socialist Jeremy Corbyn as little as she did the 60 Brextremists in her own party.


A Pinball of Political Interests

To mollify the anti-EU faction, May adopted a hardline negotiating position early on. Her country, she decided, would exit the EU's common market and customs union, and leave the jurisdiction of the European Court. It would sign trade agreements around the world and only allow a small number of Europeans to work in the country, but still somehow be as tightly bound to the EU as possible.

British parliament wasn't supposed to play a role in her decision-making. By calling an early election, she expected to secure a large enough majority to govern unimpeded.

That, though, is not how things turned out. After the June 2017 election, in which May lost her majority, she became the head of a minority government, and, from that point onward, became the pinball of various political interests. To survive, she spent months avoiding further commitments, before presenting a compromise deal this summer that would have meant such a soft Brexit barely anyone would have noticed.

In doing so, May managed the rather neat trick of making enemies of both Brexiteers and Remainers. Indeed, the only people happy with it were her negotiating partners in Brussels. EU proponents wondered why they should agree to a plan that would involve countless EU commitments without any rights. Anti-EU politicians, meanwhile, saw the emergency backup plan for the Northern Irish-Irish border as a trap.

To prevent inspections at what was to become the EU's outer border, London and Brussels had agreed on a so-called backstop which held that if the two sides didn't sign a free-trade agreement by the end of the Brexit transitional period at the end of 2020, Northern Ireland would remain in the EU customs union and, in practice, within the common market. Brexiteers saw this as an attempt to divide the UK permanently.

May believed, until recently, that should would manage to get her deal through parliament. She believed that the closer the Brexit date came, and with it the prospect of a no-deal exit from the EU, the more members of parliament would go with the lesser evil -- her Brexit deal.


Buying Support

She was late -- too late -- in recognizing that she was heading towards an historic defeat. In early January, she first tried to initiate discussions with major British labor unions as her staff tried to find out from Labour's people whether there was some way to buy their support.

Shortly before the vote on Tuesday evening, May was still holding private meetings with fellow Tories, urging them to understand the historic dimensions of their decision. Rejecting her deal, she warned, could even result in the UK remaining in the EU if a second referendum was the ultimate outcome. What May failed to realize was that a significant number of the MPs, says a May confidant, are "beyond reason."

As such, it is completely unclear if the prime minister has a path out of the chaos that she herself has produced. After surviving the no-confidence vote, as was expected, May was just as defiant as ever. She didn't immediately announce a hasty trip to Brussels to make yet more demands for concessions that wouldn't be forthcoming. Instead, she said she would begin talks with all parties represented in parliament. She wants to find out if it might be possible to patch together a majority for some kind of alternative plan.

As things currently stand, that doesn't seem likely. Despite its long and exemplary tradition, it looks as though British democracy has lost the ability to compromise. There may be a theoretical majority for a soft Brexit, according to which the country would remain in the customs union and controls on the Ireland-Northern Ireland border would become unnecessary, and a proposal is circulating in Westminster to approve May's deal on the condition that a clear end date is set for the Northern Ireland backstop plan.

The approval of such a plan carries the advantages of putting the ball back in the EU's court to help find a lasting solution to the Ireland border problem and likely bringing about an end to the political stalemate in Britain. To get there, however, a majority of MPs must demonstrate a willingness to compromise. In a situation in which parliamentarians don't even seem willing to make concessions to fellow party members, however, that seems unlikely.


Political and Economic Suicide

Indeed, those who still believe in pitting argument against argument in the search for the best possible compromise are slowly being crushed by the extremists on both sides of the aisle. On the one side is a large group of MPs who believe that a no-deal Brexit is the only way forward; on the other is an even larger group opposed to any kind of Brexit at all. Like May, both sides believe that time is on their side.

If the no-deal crowd is able for another 70 days to prevent a parliamentary majority from forming that will support a deal acceptable to Brussels, they will have reached their goal. At that point, on March 29th, all ties between Britain and the EU would immediately be severed. From day one, the country could pursue trade with the EU and other countries on the basis of World Trade Organization rules. The Brits, in other words, would be free to do whatever they want, up to and including committing political and economic suicide.

Indeed, most experts believe that would be the end result of a no-deal Brexit. Chancellor of the Exchequer Philip Hammond has calculated that the economic slump that would result from a no-deal Brexit could cost the country up to 150 billion pounds over the next 15 years. The short-term effects could be even worse. The government has already identified several sites around the country that could be used for the storage of huge amounts of foodstuffs. In case of no-deal Brexit, citizens may be asked to change their eating habits to avoid shortages, particularly of fresh produce. Tens of thousands of soldiers are on standby to maintain public order.

Yet even as the people of Britain grow increasingly nervous, no-deal supporters in Westminster continue to stoically play down any and all concerns. Even before the 2016 Brexit referendum, they say, there were dire predictions that the world would end, yet Britain hasn't gone anywhere. Jacob Rees-Mogg, a Brexiteer ringleader, told the Daily Telegraph late last year that it was "project hysteria." He went on: "Before the referendum, we were threatened with a plague of frogs. Now, they warn of the death of the first born."

On the other side of the political spectrum are those who hope Brexit can still be prevented. They want to wait until all of May's attempts at forging compromise have reached a dead end before then making a push for a second referendum at the last minute.


A Destructive Role

For that strategy to work, however, they need the support of the Labour Party, but the party's leader, Jeremy Corbyn, has thus far opted for a much more destructive role. Even though May survived the vote of no-confidence on Wednesday, the 69-year-old Corbyn still believes that he has a chance at replacing her as prime minister. He has thus far rejected May's attempts to approach him for additional talks and is apparently planning on holding repeated no-confidence votes for as long as it takes to topple May. Thus far, he has been largely unmoved by the fact that a majority of his party is in favor of a second referendum, even as the pressure to reflect grassroots interests has increased -- seemingly by the hour, at times.

A second referendum would be nothing less than a declaration of bankruptcy for the political system. But many in Westminster believe that such an ignominy is now inevitable if a no-deal Brexit is to be avoided.

Anand Menon, director of the UK in a Changing Europe think tank, says that among the many bad options, a second referendum might be one of the best. Still, he allows, there is a danger that holding a second vote could exacerbate the already significant divisions in the country. "Do we want to experience another extended period of mudslinging, with videos advertising that the bastards in London screwed up? With a Tory party divided in the middle? With the comeback of UKIP under a different name? Suddenly, we would be back in 2012."

EU supporters and opponents provided a glimpse of how contentious things could get on Tuesday as May's deal was being shredded in parliament. Outside the House of Commons, the two groups stood face to face, and they didn't seem particularly willing to engage in dialogue, aside from hurling insults back and forth like "racist!" and "traitor!" The big names from the first referendum have likewise begun jockeying for a place in the spotlight -- including Boris Johnson, the former foreign secretary. If Brexit were ultimately to be thwarted, he said, at the beginning of the week, "I think (people) will feel that there has been a great conspiracy by the deep state of the UK, the people who really run the country." And if they don't, he will certainly do his best to assure that they do.

"And what if the result would be 52:48 in favor of remain?" Menon asks. "We would be preparing for a third referendum."

There is, in fact, plenty to suggest that a new referendum could be just as close as the first. Just like the politicians in Westminster, most voters have also become quite comfortable in their echo chambers within which all new information is merely used to confirm what they already believe. Namely that remaining in or exiting from the EU, depending on their standpoint, would be hell.

The two camps are still roughly the same size, though Remainers appear to have a slight upper hand, likely because many younger Brits have become old enough to vote since the last referendum. But only very few from either camp actually listen to what their opponents have to say.


David Attenborough and the Queen

Brexit has plunged the United Kingdom into such a deep crisis of confidence that it is no longer clear if the country has trust in anyone at all. It is perhaps telling that the two people for whom the population still have a great deal of respect are both 92 years old and only tangentially involved in politics: Queen Elisabeth II and natural historian David Attenborough.

The country badly needs a "national consultation process," former Prime Minister John Major wrote recently in an op-ed for the Sunday Times, almost sounding as though he wanted to put Britain on the couch. "The intolerance, belligerence, vituperative language, threatening conduct that this debate has spawned; the families, friends, neighbors and communities that have been fractured -- sometimes beyond repair -- due to opposing political views, has not only been an unedifying spectacle, but also profoundly un-British," the 75-year-old wrote. "It is not who we are as a nation."

But what do the British want to be after Brexit? And will they still even want to be British? Or would they prefer to be English, Scottish, Welsh or Northern Irish? Nobody seems to know. In 2016, a tiny majority answered a simple "in or out" question with "out." That was the easy part.

Since then, the prime minister, 650 MPs and 66 million citizens haven't made much progress. There is precious little time left to find a workable Brexit agreement. Unless, of course, May's government decides to stop the clock ahead of the deadline of 11 p.m. Greenwich Mean Time on March 29.

The EU would likely be willing to extend the deadline if the British could provide some idea, however vague, of how they might use that extra time. Manfred Weber, the lead center-right candidate in upcoming European elections, implored Britain recently to "please, please finally tell us what it is that you want to achieve." But to figure that out, the British will first have to come to their senses.

In one of the final scenes of the recent TV movie "The Uncivil War" about the Brexit referendum, two competing campaign heads sit in a pub like two exhausted boxers. The Remainer accuses the Leaver: "You're feeding a toxic culture where the very notion of evidence-based truth is dead, where one side never believes the other, no one listens anymore, we just yell."

"We had to yell to be heard," responds the Leaver.

For a moment, the two seem to be silently considering the damage that has been done. Then, the Remainer says he fears that the divisions the campaign created will last. "I worry it won't heal."

Kaynak: http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/a-divided-britain-faces-a-no-deal-brexit-a-1248726.html



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--Alıntı--

"How a no-deal Brexit could damage Northern Irish public services"

As Brexit looms, leaders of key organisations warn of its potentially disastrous impact

By Jane Dudman - Wed 27 Feb 2019 07.00 GMT


//"Marie Brown, director of Foyle Women’s Aid in Derry: ‘Women in abusive relationships could be stuck, when they could walk over a bridge and get to safety.’ Photograph: Paul McErlane/The Guardian"///11

“It’s very, very worrying. Brexit is already impacting Northern Ireland: at the moment, if someone goes south and needs medical treatment, they are covered. But we don’t know if that will remain [when the UK leaves the EU],” says Marie Brown, director of Foyle Women’s Aid in Derry, which supports women and children dealing with domestic violence. “Northern Ireland voted for remain. We didn’t want this.”

Like many others working in public services on the island of Ireland, Brown is angry that in all the debate around the Irish backstop, politicians in Westminster are paying too little attention to the fact that a no-deal Brexit would mean the return of a hard borderthat could put lives as well as livelihoods in danger, for residents on both sides of the border.

For years now, women’s organisations in Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic have worked together to support those affected by abusive relationships, wherever they live. “It can be as simple as crossing a bridge to get help,” says Brown. “If a woman needs to come in [to our services], we can let her in.” Brexit could change all this. In places like Clady, West Tyrone, which is divided from the Irish Republic only by the River Finn, Brown says a hard border could be disastrous. “Women could be stuck, when they could walk over a bridge and get to safety,” says Brown. She worries, too, that a hard border might harm cross-border cooperation between police. “In the days when we had less cooperation, perpetrators used to use the border to avoid being arrested in domestic violence situations. That’s a concern.”

With just over a month until Britain is due to leave the EU, there’s a desperate scramble to tackle the pile of problems that could be caused by a no-deal Brexit. In 2017, a study by the UK government and the European Commission listed 142 cross-border activities on the island that could be negatively impacted by a hard Brexit. It’s not just in domestic violence situations that it could endanger lives. Although police chiefs on both sides have already pledged to continue arrangements that enable them to arrest and extradite criminals, they have warned that it could become harder to share information.

The status of looked-after children from the north could also be a problem. More childen have been placed in foster care in the Irish Republic in recent years, but there are no figures on how many may be affected, says Paddy Kelly, director of the Belfast-based Children’s Law Centre, because the citizenship and immigration status of looked-after children has not been routinely or rigorously recorded. “We’ve been trying to raise these issues ever since 2016,” she says.

Healthcare is a particular concern. In the past few years, all-island agreements have transformed services, with staff, patients, clinicians, medicines and ambulances all free to move between the two countries.


// "‘Many working in public services on the island of Ireland are frustrated that politicians in Westminster are forgetting that a no-deal Brexit would mean the return of a hard border.’ Photograph: Kirsty Wigglesworth/AP"///22

Some health services have been consolidated, including cross-border cancer and cardiology services at Altnagelvin hospital, in Northern Ireland, and the centralisation of children’s heart surgery in Dublin for the 400 children in the Irish Republic and the 140 in Northern Ireland every year who need heart operations.

Ambulances and fire services attend emergency situations on both sides of the border. Between 2015 and 2018, the Northern Ireland Ambulance Service attended 221 emergency calls in the Irish Republic, while their counterparts responded to 132 incidents in Northern Ireland.

Cross-border arrangements are vital, says Phil Alexander, chief executive of Belfast-based charity Cancer Fund for Children, which supports children and parents across the island of Ireland. He says it’s hard to overstate the importance for families in Northern Ireland of having high-quality medical facilities available in Dublin, less than two hours’ drive away from Belfast – otherwise, people would have to travel to mainland UK for specialist treatment. It makes visiting and supporting ill children far more accessible and less expensive than entire families having to fly over to Bristol, Birmingham or London.

When Janet O’Neill’s son Robbie was just eight months old, he was diagnosed with cancer. A few months later, he was also diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1, a genetic disorder than can affect mulitple systems in the body. All-Ireland healthcare means Robbie’s been able to travel wherever he needs for the best-possible care, including brachytherapy (internal) radiation treatment in France and regular checkups at Guy’s hospital in London, as well as visits with his family to the Cancer Fund for Children’s Daisy Lodge facility in Northern Ireland. “There’s so much involved when a child is sick: just getting them the treatment and getting them to the hospital and getting the other child to school,” says O’Neill, who lives in Kilkenny, in the Irish Republic. “Going to Daisy Lodge brought us happiness in all of that. We can just drive up there and the way they looked after us all was indescribable. It was just beautiful.”

O’Neill fears what’s going to happen post-Brexit. While last week’s announcement that the Irish government will continue funding health treatments in Northern Ireland for its citizens after Brexit is welcome, O’Neill, who lives in the Republic, is still concerned. “To have the worry of having a hard border – it takes all the good out of it,” she says. “If there was a hard border, there could be safety issues., “It would put us and other families off going.”

Brexit also risks heightening staffing problems in public services. Every day, almost 15,000 people travel between the two jurisdictions for work or study, according to the risk register compiled by the 10 border councils on the island – five in the north, five in the south – to map out the issues likely to impact their residents, businesses and staff after Brexit. More than a quarter of jobs in Northern Ireland and just under one-fifth in the Irish Republic are in the public sector, and there are a number of practical concerns around how these employees could live and work on both sides of the border.


//"A Border Communities Against Brexit billboard close to the Letterkenny-Strabane border in the Irish Republic. Photograph: Paul McErlane/The Guardian"///33

Northern Ireland already has a shortage of 2,000 nurses in the NHS and community care sector, and a recent report by the Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action (NICVA), which represents 6,000 organisations employing 44,000 people, warns of the dangers of public services becoming a casualty of Brexit. “Freedom of movement and the provision of care and protection on an all-island basis is vital,” it says. And free movement of staffing, medicines and cross-border security, post Brexit is not just for Irish and UK citizens, but for workers from the other 26 EU countries. “Even if there’s a deal, the situation is hardly likely to encourage people to move from the EU26 to Northern Ireland or to encourage Irish citizens to take jobs in Northern Ireland, so that in itself is a factor, when there are already big problems in staffing in health and social care,” says Gordon Marnoch, reader in public policy at Ulster University.

Ultimately, some fear that Brexit could undermine the Good Friday agreement and jeopardise peace, with serious ramifications for public services. In October, the Belfast city region gained £350m from Westminster to develop tourism, infrastructure and digital services. This progress is based on peace and security, says Liam Hannaway, chief executive of Newry, Mourne and Down district council. “I’m not a doomsday person but there is potential for civil unrest,” he says.

Brown says: “When we had violence here, women and children suffered terribly. Are we going to end up going back to those times?”▄

Kaynak: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2019/feb/27/no-deal-brexit-damage-northern-ireland-public-services


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[Edited at 2019-03-05 08:09 GMT]
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"Our 2019 Annual Letter"



"We didn’t see this coming"


By Bill and Melinda Gates | February 12, 2019

*-*bill-melinda-gates


How would you describe 2018?

Was it what you expected?

We’d probably say no. From especially devastating natural disasters on the one hand to record numbers of women campaigning for office on the other, 2018 felt to us like a series of surprises. The world looking backward from today is very different from what we pictured a couple years ago looking forward.

A benefit of surprises is that they’re often a prod to action. It can gnaw at people to realize that the realities of the world don’t match their expectations for it. Some surprises help people see that the status quo needs to change. Some surprises underscore that transformation is happening already.

Twenty-five years ago, we read an article that said hundreds of thousands of kids in poor countries were dying from diarrhea. That surprise helped crystallize our values. We believe in a world where innovation is for everyone—where no child dies from a disease it’s possible to prevent. But what we saw was a world still shaped by inequity.

That discovery was one of the most important steps in our journey to philanthropy. We were surprised, then we were outraged, then we were activated.

There have been good surprises, too. When we first started learning about malaria, we thought the world would never make real headway on the disease until someone invented a long-acting vaccine. But thanks to bed nets and other measures, malaria deaths are down 42 percent since 2000.

In this year’s annual letter, we’re highlighting nine more things that have surprised us along this journey. Some worry us. Others inspire us. All of them are prodding us to action. We hope they do the same for you, because that’s how the world gets better.

Bill: The world keeps getting older, but Africa stays (nearly) the same age. It sounds confusing, but it makes sense when you break it down.
The global median age is on the rise. In every part of the world, people are living longer. As more children survive to adulthood, women are having fewer kids than ever before. The result is a global population that’s creeping slowly toward middle age.

Except in Africa. The median age there is just 18. In North America, it is 35. And the number of young Africans is expected to rise in the decades to come.


There are a lot of reasons for this. One is that the annual number of births is going up in the poorest parts of sub-Saharan Africa, even as it goes down in other parts of Africa. This can be either an asset or a source of instability. Melinda and I believe that the right investments will unlock the continent’s enormous potential. Young Africans will shape the future of not only their own communities but the entire world.

Melinda: When economists describe the conditions under which countries prosper, one of the factors they stress is “human capital,” which is another way of saying that the future depends on young people’s access to high-quality health and education services. Health and education are the twin engines of economic growth.


If sub-Saharan Africa commits to investing in its young people, the region could double its share of the global labor force by 2050, unlocking a better life for hundreds of millions of people.

Girls’ education, especially, is among the most powerful forces on the planet. Educated girls are healthier. They are wealthier. (If all girls received 12 years of high-quality education, women’s lifetime earnings would increase by as much as $30 trillion, which is bigger than the entire U.S. economy.) And their families benefit, too. The more education a woman has, the better equipped she is to raise healthy children. In fact, UNESCO estimates that if all women in low- and middle-income countries finished secondary school, child mortality in those countries would fall by about half.

A healthy, educated, and empowered African youth boom that lifts girls instead of leaving them behind would be the best indicator of progress I can imagine.


Bill: When police used genetic test results to catch the Golden State Killer last year, the story made headlines around the world. But it’s not the only discovery to come out of at-home DNA tests. By looking at more than 40,000 samples voluntarily submitted by 23andMe users, scientists discovered a potential link between preterm labor and six genes—including one that regulates how the body uses a mineral called selenium.

Some people have a gene that prevents them from processing selenium properly. The 23andMe study (which our foundation helped fund) found that expectant mothers who carry that gene were more likely to give birth early. This suggests that selenium plays a role in determining when a woman begins labor.

Understanding what causes prematurity is hugely important. Fifteen million babies are born premature every year, making it the leading cause of death in children under age five. Preterm birth affects mothers in every part of the world—although some groups experience it at a higher rate (which Melinda will talk about), and premature babies in low-income countries are much more likely to die than ones in richer countries.

Researchers won’t know until later this year how exactly the mineral affects preterm birth risk. But if the link proves substantial, selenium could one day be a cheap and easy solution to help women extend their pregnancy to full term.

This connection is one of several breakthroughs we’ve made in recent years. Better tools and more data sharing mean that we’re finally starting to understand what causes babies to be born early—and what we can do to keep them in the womb longer. I’m particularly excited by the simple blood test for prematurity being developed by a team at Stanford. It can tell a woman how soon she’ll give birth, so she can work with her doctor to minimize risks.

Melinda: Despite all the promising discoveries Bill just described, what’s just as amazing to me is how little we know about prematurity. I can’t think of anything else that affects 10 percent of people in every part of the world but gets so little attention.

For the vast majority of preterm births, we can’t identify the cause, nor do we know why some groups of women are more prone to delivering their babies early. For example, it’s a mystery why taller women have longer pregnancies. And in the U.S., it’s a mystery why African-American women deliver prematurely more often than women who emigrate here from African countries. One theory is sociocultural—that the racism and discrimination African-American women have faced their whole lives leads to stress that damages their health. Another is that the mix of micro-organisms in women’s bodies may be different when they are raised here. We just don’t know.

But here’s one thing we do know: Prematurity is not binary. It matters a lot how early a baby is born; a baby born at 36 weeks is much better off than a baby born at 34 weeks. Our goal should not be to prevent prematurity categorically, which may be impossible anyway. Instead, it should be to extend pregnancies closer to full term for everyone. And we’re finally starting to fill the gaps in our knowledge about how to do so.

Bill: I wish more people fully understood what it will take to stop climate change.
You have probably read about some of the progress on electricity, as renewables get cheaper. But electricity accounts for only a quarter of all the greenhouse gases emitted around the world.

Manufacturing isn’t far behind, at 21 percent. When most people think of manufacturing, they picture widgets on assembly lines, but it also includes the materials used in buildings. Making cement and steel requires lots of energy from fossil fuels, and the processes involved release carbon as a byproduct.


As the urban population continues to grow in the coming decades, the world’s building stock is expected to double by 2060—the equivalent of adding another New York City monthly between now and then. That’s a lot of cement and steel. We need to find a way to make it all without worsening climate change.

Manufacturing isn’t the only big emitter. Agriculture accounts for 24 percent of greenhouse gases. That includes cattle, which give off methane when they belch and pass gas. (A personal surprise for me: I never thought I’d be writing seriously about bovine flatulence.)

The larger point is that if we’re going to solve climate change, we need to get to near-zero emissions on all the things that drive it—agriculture, electricity, manufacturing, transportation, and buildings. I call these five areas the grand challenges in climate change.


It’s not realistic to think that people will simply stop using fertilizer, running cargo ships, building offices, or flying airplanes. Nor is it fair to ask developing countries to curtail their growth for the sake of everyone else. For example, for many people in low- and middle-income countries, cattle are an essential source of income and nutrients.

Part of the solution is to invest in innovation in all five sectors so we can do these things without destroying the climate. We need breakthrough inventions in each of the grand challenges.



I can report some progress. The European Commission recently committed to invest in research and development on the five areas. And the $1 billion private fund I’m involved with, Breakthrough Energy Ventures, is using the five grand challenges to guide all our investments in clean-energy companies. (My BEV work is separate from what our foundation does to help farmers adapt to climate change.)

But we need to do a much better job of informing people about the challenges. It would help if media coverage matched the breadth of the problem. Solar panels are great, but we should be hearing about trucks, cement, and cow farts too.


Bill: I spend big chunks of my day studying data on health and development. I’m amazed at how little data we have on women and girls. I think the main reason is that we create this artificial divide where some issues are “women’s” issues and others aren’t, and the women’s issues don’t get as much in-depth study. That blocks progress for everyone. You can’t improve things if you don’t know what’s going on with half the population. There’s no good reason for that, now that technology makes it so much easier to gather data.
Melinda: How much income did women in developing countries earn last year? How much property do they own? How many more hours do girls spend on household chores than boys?
I don’t know. Neither does anyone else. The data just doesn’t exist.

Bill and I could easily spend our whole annual letter talking about the role data plays in driving progress for the world’s poorest people. Data leads to better decisions and better policies. It helps us create goals and measure progress. It enables advocacy and accountability.


That’s why the missing data about women and girls’ lives is so harmful. It gets in the way of helping them make their lives better.

The problem isn’t only that some women are missing from the record altogether. It’s also that the data we do have—data that policymakers depend on—is bad. You might even call it sexist. We like to think of data as being objective, but the answers we get are often shaped by the questions we ask. When those questions are biased, the data is too.

For example, what little data we do have about women in developing countries is mostly about their reproductive health—because in places where women’s primary role in society is being a wife and mother, that’s what researchers tend to focus on. But we have no idea how much most of these women earn or what they own, because, in many countries, income and assets are counted by household. Since the husband is considered the head of the household, everything a married woman brings in is credited to him.

When such flawed data is all you have to go on, it’s easy to undervalue women’s economic activity—and difficult to measure whether women’s economic condition is improving.

Three years ago, our foundation made a big investment to start filling some of these data gaps. We are part of a network of organizations working to accelerate a gender data revolution—from empowering data collectors with new tools and training to breaking down existing datasets by gender to mine them for insights.

This work to collect and analyze data can sound—let’s face it—boring. But what’s not boring is using data to empower millions of women and girls.

When I was in Kenya a few years ago, a data collector named Christine let me accompany her as she went door to door surveying women in one of the poorest parts of Nairobi. She told me that many of the women she meets through this work have never been asked questions about their lives before. Christine says that when she knocks on a woman’s door and explains that she’s there to learn more about her, it sends a message to that woman that she matters—that someone cares about her.

I think her point is a powerful one. What we choose to measure is a reflection of what society values. That’s why when it comes to understanding the lives of women and girls, the world can’t accept “I don’t know” as an answer.

Melinda: Two autumns ago, Bill and I spent an afternoon at a Georgia state prison. We were there to learn more about the link between poverty and mass incarceration. (As we wrote about in last year’s letter, our foundation is beginning to expand our work in the U.S. beyond our investments in public education, so we’ve been studying U.S. poverty from lots of angles.)

The most memorable part of the day was a conversation we had with a small group of inmates. If we had any preconceived idea of what a violent offender would be like, the men we met didn’t fit it. During our time together, they were funny, friendly, and reflective.

We talked about their plans for life after release and the circumstances that led to their convictions. While we didn’t go deeply into the specifics of their crimes (some of which were serious violent offenses), most of them said something about considering themselves to be generally good people who fell in with a bad group and, during a heated moment, did something terrible. They take responsibility for what happened, and, given the chance to go back in time, they would do things differently. But in the moment that mattered, their decision was the wrong one.

Every day, there are young men across the country finding themselves in similar situations—high-stakes interactions that could turn violent or deadly. A growing body of research suggests that interventions that work with young people to improve their impulse control may help them more safely navigate these situations—keeping them in school and out of trouble. That’s where programs like Becoming a Man come in.

BAM helps young men in neighborhoods with a lot of crime and gang activity explore their emotions and hone their decision-making skills. It’s drawn a lot of attention for its success: A study by the University of Chicago found that BAM reduces its participants’ violent crime arrests by almost half.

Last year, Bill spent time with BAM and joined a small group of high school students for a meeting. When he got home, I could tell right away how much the experience had touched his heart. “I didn’t just see a BAM circle,” he told me. “I participated in it.”

Bill: I heard about BAM because our foundation is starting to invest in programs that help kids with social and emotional growth. I was surprised that its approach could be so effective, and I wanted to see it in action. I had no idea how moving it would be.

I sat in on one of the small meetings that students in the program have with a counselor twice a week. After the students asked me to join—you have to be formally invited by the group—I sat in a circle with five young men, a mix of sophomores and juniors. They started by going around the circle and letting each person share something about the topic of the day. When I was there, the subject was anger. When was the last time you were angry? How did you handle it and what could you have done differently?

Although some of the guys talked about typical teenage frustrations—a teacher was treating them unfairly, or they kept dying in a video game—others had tragic stories. One had just watched a family member go to jail. Another spoke about a friend who had been shot. (I’m leaving out some details of the visit to preserve the participants’ confidentiality.)

When it was my turn, my answer was not like everyone else’s. I talked about getting mad at a meeting where I learned that the number of polio cases was going up. I am lucky to be able to worry about problems like that. The things that troubled the young men in the circle that day were a lot closer to home. Polio was hardly on their list of top concerns, and I understand why.


But even though the circumstances were very different, learning to deal with your anger was something we all related to. It’s an important life skill, part of becoming a mature adult. Growing up, if I thought my parents were being unfair, I could be pretty harsh with them. When I was at Microsoft, I was tough on people I worked with. Some of it helped us be successful, but I’m sure some of it was over the top.

So it was inspiring to see these young men in such tough circumstances working on this skill much earlier than I did. They were deeply engaged in the conversation, asking each other thoughtful follow-up questions. They were facing big challenges with incredible resilience.

After the session was over, I stayed around to chat a while. We posed for selfies and joked about the Xbox versus PlayStation debate. (I said we’re an Xbox family, which surprised no one.)

This particular BAM group had been together for a year, and it showed. I was touched by the respect they had for each other and the intimacy they allowed themselves. I left thinking: This is how every classroom in the world should feel.

Melinda: Nationalism is a word we’ve been hearing a lot more often these days. It’s also one of the most loaded words in our 21st-century politics. While it’s come to mean different things to different people (and carry different connotations and insinuations), at its core, nationalism is the belief that a country’s first obligation is to itself. There’s an element of that that I think many of us would agree with.

Bill and I love our country. We believe in what it stands for. We agree that our leaders have a duty to protect it. And for all of those reasons, we consider global engagement our patriotic duty.

We’re not alone. You may remember that both times the White House threatened to make severe cuts to America’s foreign aid budget, some of the loudest voices of protest came from members of Congress and U.S. military leaders who argued that these investments are vital to protecting American interests.


The reason that countries like the U.S. invest in foreign aid is that it increases stability abroad and security at home. Strengthening health systems overseas decreases the chance of a deadly pathogen like Ebola becoming a global epidemic. And ensuring that every parent everywhere has the opportunity to raise safe, educated, healthy kids makes it less likely that they will embark on desperate journeys to seek better lives elsewhere.

There is nothing about putting your country first that requires turning your back on the rest of the world. If anything, the opposite is true.

Bill: We’re going to be making this case over and over in the next couple of years, because this is a crucial time in global health, and the kind of go-it-alone approach Melinda described could cause a major setback.

In 2019, governments will need to recommit to funding for the Global Fund, one of the biggest health efforts in the world. And Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, will need to raise money in 2020.

It’s hard to overstate how much good these projects have done in the world. Since 2002, when it was created to combat AIDS, TB, and malaria, the Global Fund and its partners have saved 27 million lives. Since 2000, Gavi has provided basic vaccines to more than 690 million children. That’s like vaccinating nearly every person in Europe.

To me these results are astonishing. They show what’s possible when we act on the idea that all of us have a stake in the health and well-being of the poorest. It’s also incredibly cost-effective: Rich countries spend around 0.1 percent of their budgets on health aid.

But I worry that wealthy countries are turning inward and will take such a limited view of their own self-interest that they’ll decide these efforts aren’t worth the cost. Or that even if everyone agrees in principle that aid is important, they’ll be so polarized that their political allegiances will keep them from taking action.

That would be a disaster. Today more than 17 million people living with HIV get medicine from the Global Fund. Without it, they will die.

That’s one reason why Melinda and I are always talking about success stories. At a time when new outrages seem to dominate the headlines every day, we want to keep reminding people that life is getting better for millions of people in the world’s poorest countries, thanks in part to smart investments in health. Even if you only care about the welfare of your fellow citizens, these investments are overwhelmingly smart things to do. Progress benefits everyone.

Bill: Nearly eight years ago, Melinda and I challenged engineers and scientists around the world to reinvent the toilet. More than 2 billion people around the world lack access to a decent toilet. Their waste often ends up in the environment, untreated, killing nearly 800 children every day. And exporting rich-world sanitation solutions isn’t an option, because they require sewer systems that are too expensive to build and need a lot of water.

Last year we organized a toilet fair in Beijing, where I got to check out a number of next-gen toilets in person and even shared the stage with a beaker of human feces.

Several companies are business-ready. Their inventions check almost all the boxes: They kill pathogens, can keep pace with the needs of fast-growing urban areas, and don’t require sewer infrastructure, external water sources, or continuous electricity to operate. The only area where they currently fall short is cost—which is why our foundation is investing in more R&D to help make them affordable for the poor.

So what does the next generation of toilets look like? At first glance, not that different. They don’t exactly look like something out of a sci-fi novel.


The real magic happens out of sight. Unlike today’s commodes, the toilets of the future are self-contained. They’re essentially tiny treatment plants capable of killing pathogens and rendering waste safe on their own. Many of them even turn human feces and urine into useful byproducts, like fertilizer for crops and water for handwashing.

They might not be the sexiest innovations in the world, but the toilets of the future will save millions of lives.

Melinda: They’ll also improve lives—especially for women and girls. Life without a toilet is hard for anyone, but it tends to be women and girls who suffer most.

Bill and I have both met women who have suffered kidney damage from holding in urine all night to avoid a risky trip to dangerous public facilities. We’ve met others whose only place to defecate is in an open field, so they restrict their food intake all day and wait for cover of darkness to relieve themselves in relative privacy. There’s also some qualitative evidence that suggests that girls are more likely to miss school during their periods when their school doesn’t have a decent toilet. (When you learn just how entrenched stigma around periods still is in many places, you can start to understand why someone would rather fall behind on her studies or miss wages than risk humiliation.)

If you’re anything like me, I’m guessing toilets aren’t your favorite topic of conversation. But if you care about keeping girls in school, expanding women’s economic participation, and protecting them against violence, then we have to be willing to talk about toilets.

Bill: I read more than my share of textbooks. But it’s a pretty limited way to learn something. Even the best text can’t figure out which concepts you understand and which ones you need more help with. It certainly can’t tell your teacher how well you grasped last night’s assigned reading.

But now, thanks to software, the standalone textbook is becoming a thing of the past. Suppose you’re taking high school algebra. Instead of just reading a chapter on solving equations, you can look at the text online, watch a super-engaging video that shows you how it’s done, and play a game that reinforces the concepts. Then you solve a few problems online, and the software creates new quiz questions to zero in on the ideas you’re not quite getting.

All of this is a complement to what teachers do, not a replacement. Your teacher gets a rich report showing what you read and watched, which problems you got right and wrong, and the areas where you need more help. When you come to class the next day, she is equipped with a ton of specific information and suggestions to help her make the most of her time with you.

When I told you about this type of software in previous letters, it was mostly speculative. But now I can report that these tools have been adopted in thousands of U.S. classrooms from kindergarten through high school. Zearn, i-Ready, and LearnZillion are examples of digital curricula used by students and teachers throughout the U.S. More than 3,000 schools are teaching a free digital course that I fund called Big History, which uses software to give students immediate feedback on their writing assignments.

What’s next? The same basic cycle you go through for all software: Get lots of feedback on the existing products, collect data on what works, and make them better. This cycle is picking up steam as more states and districts gain confidence about using digital curricula in their schools. I hope this growing momentum will inspire more of the big textbook publishers, which have been slow to offer these kinds of tools.

In the meantime, I haven’t heard from anyone who misses their heavy, expensive textbooks.

Melinda: In addition to adapting to what students know, these online tools also facilitate a new approach to teaching and learning that adapts to who these students are.
In 2019, the typical college student is no longer the stereotypical student who lives in a dorm and graduates in four years after a few spring breaks somewhere warm. Almost half of today’s college students are 25 or older; well over half have a job; more than a quarter have kids of their own.


These “nontraditional” students often don’t have the time or resources to effectively navigate an inefficient, inflexible learning environment designed to meet other people’s needs. That’s a big reason why two out of every five students who enroll in higher education will either withdraw for a while or drop out altogether.

Digital learning tools can help students meet these challenges—by making college more affordable, more convenient, and more effective.

One study found that using open courseware saved students an average of $66 to $121 per course. (Over an academic year, that can add up to $1,000, which can be the difference between staying in school or having to drop out.) Another found that students who used digital learning tools for introductory classes got better grades than students who learned in the traditional way. And, of course, those students had a lot more flexibility. Not having to show up to a physical classroom at a specific time makes a big difference to students who are balancing school with working and raising a family.

Put it all together, and you have students spending less for more convenient classes in which they perform better. In short, we now have the tools to redesign higher education so that it meets the needs of today’s students.

Melinda: In rich countries, mobile phones make it easier to do things we were already doing—send email instead of snail mail, navigate the world without wrestling with a map, hail a ride without standing outside in the rain. But for the world’s most marginalized women, a mobile phone doesn’t just make their old life more convenient; it can help them build an entirely new life. That’s because connectivity is a solution to marginalization.

If you’re a woman who has never stepped into a bank, mobile banking offers you a foothold in the formal economy and a chance at financial independence. If you’re expected to do all the cooking, cleaning, and child-rearing, your income potential improves dramatically as you gain opportunities to connect with customers, trainings, and professional organizations—all from your home. If you’re worried about the stigma you’ll encounter when you ask for contraceptives at your local clinic, an e-commerce delivery platform can help you reassert control over your body and your future.

In other words, women are not only using their mobile phones to access services and opportunities. They’re using them to change social norms and challenge the power structures that perpetuate gender inequality.


The catch is that the gender gap in both mobile phone ownership and mobile internet use remains significant. A recent study of ten countries across Africa, Asia, and South America found that—regardless of their age, education, wealth, or location—women are almost 40 percent less likely than men to have used the internet.

There are a lot of reasons why this gap exists. Cost, literacy (both digital and otherwise), and social norms are three of the big ones. In response, mobile phone companies who are eager to tap into this market are creating business strategies that target women customers. In Kenya and Nigeria, gender and development programs are putting new focus on teaching women digital literacy skills. We’ve partnered with an initiative at the Harvard Kennedy School to begin testing solutions to the social norms barrier.

When I think about why it’s so important to get more mobile phones in the hands of women, I think about Nikmah, a woman I met in Indonesia last October. Nikmah told me she’d tried for years to support her three children by selling vegetables, but she never could seem to make ends meet. Her situation became even more untenable after she had to flee an abusive husband.

Today, Nikmah is one of more than a million Indonesians making a living through Go-Jek, a popular mobile platform for rides, food deliveries, and other services. The app connects her to a steady stream of customers and income, and she is paid through a mobile bank account, so she has total control over the money she earns. She can now afford to provide for her children without having to depend on a man who mistreats her. And through her phone, she’s formed a network with other women service providers, who pool their savings to support each other through accidents or health emergencies.

Nikmah told me, “Life is like a wheel. Sometimes you’re under, sometimes you’re on top.” For women like her who have spent so much of their lives trapped on the bottom, mobile technology creates new opportunities to fight inequity and lift themselves up. We can help women seize these opportunities by ensuring that inequity doesn’t keep them from having access to technology in the first place.

One last surprise (maybe)

We get asked a lot these days whether we're still optimistic about the future. We say: Absolutely. One reason is that we believe in the power of innovation. But an even bigger reason is that we've seen firsthand that for every challenge we've written about in this letter, there are people devoting their ideas, their resources, and even their lives to solving them.

When we're feeling overwhelmed by negative headlines, we remind ourselves that none of us has the right to sit back and expect that the world is going to keep getting better. We have a responsibility to do everything we can to push it in that direction.

In that way, we've found that optimism can be a powerful call to action. And it has a multiplier effect: The more optimists there are working for a better future, the more reasons there are to be optimistic.


You heard from us. Now we want to hear from you.

We’ve shared the nine things that surprised us—and we’re ready for more. Using the form below, tell us about something that has surprised you and moved you to take action. We’ll highlight the best responses in the near future.

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Dedication

//"Bill Gates und Paul Allen, Bellevue, Washington 1982"///DedicationImage
We’re dedicating this year’s letter to our dear friend and Bill’s Microsoft co-founder, Paul Allen, who died of cancer last October. Paul was a brilliant man with a wide-ranging mind and a special talent for explaining complicated subjects in a simple way. He loved to share his passion for music, science, the arts, sports, philanthropy, and so much more. He supported homeless shelters, brain research, and arts education. He helped us see how much good innovation could do in the world. He deserved more time in life, and his passing left a big hole in our hearts. We’ll think of him every time we hear Jimi Hendrix.

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Kaynak: https://www.gatesnotes.com/2019-Annual-Letter?WT.mc_id=02_12_2019_05_AL2019_GF-GFO_&WT.tsrc=GFGFO


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--Or(a)dan-bur(a)dan alıntı--


//Bill Gates, left, and Paul Allen are shown in 1979 when they moved Microsoft to Bellevue///5ş

//A photo first published in 1982 shows Paul Allen, 29, left, and Bill Gates, 26. They turned a pivotal idea into a multimillion-dollar business in the explosively growing personal-computer field.///tzr_182611-768x493

*-*12f

//Gates and Allen, circa 1981///q2


//Microsoft Co Founder Paul Allen Helped Change The World Verge///17l

//Bill Gates And Paul Allen Reunite Recreate Clic 1981///8g

//Paul Allen Microsoft Co Founder And Seahawks Owner S At 65///785



[Edited at 2019-03-05 22:21 GMT]


 

Adnan Özdemir  Identity Verified
Turkey
Local time: 02:56
Member (2007)
German to Turkish
+ ...
TOPIC STARTER
~ Mar 5

--Alıntı--


URSPRÜNGLICHE EVOLUTIONÄRE FUNKTION?
:
"Im Schlaf reparieren Neurone ihr Erbgut"

von Lars Fischer - 05.03.2019


Zeitrafferaufnahmen aus Zellen zeigen: In aktiven Nerven sind die Chromosomen zu steif, um repariert zu werden. Erst im Schlaf sind sie so beweglich, dass Schäden zu beheben sind.

Nervenzellen scheinen den Schlaf zu nutzen, um Schäden an ihrem Genom zu reparieren. Zu diesem Schluss komm
... See more
--Alıntı--


URSPRÜNGLICHE EVOLUTIONÄRE FUNKTION?
:
"Im Schlaf reparieren Neurone ihr Erbgut"

von Lars Fischer - 05.03.2019


Zeitrafferaufnahmen aus Zellen zeigen: In aktiven Nerven sind die Chromosomen zu steif, um repariert zu werden. Erst im Schlaf sind sie so beweglich, dass Schäden zu beheben sind.

Nervenzellen scheinen den Schlaf zu nutzen, um Schäden an ihrem Genom zu reparieren. Zu diesem Schluss kommt eine Arbeitsgruppe um den Schlafforscher Lior Appelbaum von der Bar-Ilan-Universität in Ramat-Gan. Das israelische Team untersuchte dazu, wie sich die Träger der Erbinformationen, die Chromosomen, in einzelnen Neuronen von Zebrabärbling-Larven verhalten. In den zusammen mit der Veröffentlichung in »Nature Communications« publizierten Zeitrafferaufnahmen der Zellen zeigt sich, dass die Chromosomen sich kaum bewegen, solange die Nervenzelle aktiv ist. Dabei sammeln sich allerdings DNA-Schäden an, bei denen beide Stränge der DNA-Doppelhelix an der gleichen Stelle brechen – um diese potenziell gefährlichen Doppelstrangbrüche zu reparieren, muss sich das Chromosom viel stärker bewegen können als während der Nervenaktivität möglich.

Das geschieht im Schlaf. Die Arbeitsgruppe erzeugte die Zeitrafferaufnahmen, indem sie in das Erbgut der Zebrabärblinge das Gen für ein unter UV-Licht grün leuchtendes Protein einfügten, das mit einem an Chromosomen bindenden Molekülteil gekoppelt war. Auf diesem Weg wurde die Bewegung der Chromosomen in einzelnen Nervenzellen der nahezu transparenten Larven gut sichtbar. Wie Appelbaums Team zeigt, bewegen sich die Chromosomen der Nervenzellen in der Ruhephase doppelt so stark: genug, dass die während der Wachphase angesammelten Schäden repariert werden. Der Befund passt zu früheren Ergebnissen, die auf einen Zusammenhang mit der DNA-Reparatur hindeuten.

Die Arbeitsgruppe behauptet nicht, damit den ultimativen Nutzen des Schlafs gefunden zu haben – dass es nicht die einzelne definitive Funktion gibt, darüber herrscht weithin Einigkeit angesichts der enorm vielfältigen Effekte, die bisher identifiziert wurden. Studien haben gezeigt, dass Schlaf für so unterschiedliche Aspekte wichtig ist wie die Regulierung der Immunreaktion einerseits und schlichte Müllabfuhr im Gehirn andererseits. Allerdings ist das Team der Ansicht, mit der Chromosomendynamik einen aussichtsreichen molekularen Marker gefunden zu haben, an dem sich Schlaf selbst bei den einfachsten Tieren auf zellulärer Ebene eindeutig identifizieren lässt.

Heute sind sich zwar die meisten Fachleute einig, dass alle Tiere in einem gewissen Ausmaß schlafen. Doch um das Phänomen quer durch alle Tiergruppen von Qualle bis Quokka zu erforschen, muss man sicher sein können, dass das, was man gerade untersucht, auch wirklich Schlaf ist. Solche Untersuchungen würden womöglich in Zukunft einen Hinweis darauf geben, was die allererste, ursprüngliche Funktion des Schlafs bei den gemeinsamen Vorfahren aller Tiere war. Womöglich, deuten Appelbaum und sein Team an, schliefen die ersten Wesen mit Nervensystem tatsächlich, um dem Erbgut ihrer Neurone Gelegenheit zu geben, die Schäden des Tages zu reparieren.

▄▄
Lars Fischer ist studierter Chemiker und Redakteur bei »Spektrum.de«.

Kaynak: https://www.spektrum.de/news/im-schlaf-reparieren-neurone-ihr-erbgut/1627832


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--Alıntı--

INSOMNIE
:
"Die Neurone, die uns nicht schlafen lassen"


von Christiane Gelitz - 25.02.2019


Fast 1000 Gene tragen zu einem erhöhten Risiko von Schlafstörungen bei. Ein Teil von ihnen wirkt an einem bestimmten dornigen Zelltyp im Striatum.

*-*11

956 Gene können zu chronischen Schlafstörungen beitragen. Aus diesen gemeinsamen Erbanlagen von Betroffenen hat ein internationales Forscherteam jetzt auf jene Auffälligkeiten im Gehirn zurückgeschlossen, die sowohl mit der genetischen Ausstattung als auch mit der gestörten Nachtruhe zusammenhängen. Die Hauptschuldigen: eine Population dorniger Neurone, in denen sich auch das langsame Auf und Ab der Hirnaktivität im Tiefschlaf abspielt.

Wie das Team in »Nature Genetics« schildert, liegen der Studie Genomdaten und Angaben zu Schlafstörungen von rund 1,3 Millionen Menschen zu Grunde, darunter aus der britischen Biobank und von Kunden des US-Unternehmens 23andMe. Zunächst identifizierten die Forschenden 956 Genvarianten, die mit einem erhöhten Risiko von Schlafstörungen korreliert waren. Erstaunlicherweise überlappten sie sich nur wenig mit jenen Erbanlagen, die etwa den Chronotyp (Frühaufsteher oder Nachteule) sowie andere schlafbezogene Merkmale beeinflussen. Dafür aber fand man große Überschneidungen mit den genetischen Wurzeln von Depressionen, Ängsten und emotionaler Labilität. Ein Hinweis darauf, dass die Insomnie genetisch mehr mit neuropsychiatrischen als mit anderen schlafbezogenen Merkmalen gemeinsam hat.

Im Fokus der Studie stand jedoch eine andere Frage: wo im Gehirn die Erbanlagen überhaupt ihre Wirkung entfalten. Eine Gruppe von Genen spielte demnach eine entscheidende Rolle für die Funktionsweise der Axone – jener langen Fortsätze des Zellkörpers, mit denen Nervenzellen ihre Signale an andere Zellen weitergeben. Eine weitere Gruppe war in bestimmten Neuronen des kortiko-striatalen Netzwerks aktiv, das schon länger mit Schlafstörungen in Zusammenhang gebracht wird: »Wir entdeckten einen spezifischen Typ von Nervenzellen, die so genannten ›medium spiny neurons‹«, berichtet die Genetikerin Danielle Posthuma von der Freien Universität Amsterdam.

Diese Stachelneurone – mittelgroße, mit Dornen übersäte Nervenzellen – siedeln unter anderem in Kerngebieten an der Innenseite der beiden Großhirnhälften. Sie wirken überwiegend hemmend und bilden 95 Prozent der Neuronenpopulation im Striatum, einem der zentralen Bausteine der Basalganglien, die über Regelkreise unsere Bewegungen koordinieren. Dass die Basalganglien eine Rolle bei der Schlafregulation spielen, ließen schon ältere Befunde vermuten, die ein gehäuftes Auftreten von Schlafstörungen bei neurodegenerativen Erkrankungen festgestellt hatten. »Bildgebende Studien legen nahe, dass der Nucleus caudatus im Striatum bei Schlafstörungen der Schlüssel zum neuronalen Ungleichgewicht ist«, erklären die Genetikerin Posthuma und ihre Kollegen.

Mit dem Wissen um diese spezifischen Neurone sei es nun möglich, so Erstautor Philip Jansen, die zu Grunde liegenden Mechanismen hinter Schlafstörungen auf der Ebene einzelner Hirnzellen im Labor zu untersuchen, »um zu verstehen, was auf der Mikroebene von Molekülen und Zellen im Gehirn passiert«. Einer von zehn Menschen, im höheren Alter sogar jeder dritte leide unter chronischer Insomnie. Die Betroffenen haben über mindestens drei Monate hinweg fast jeden zweiten Tag beträchtliche Probleme beim Ein- oder Durchschlafen.

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Christiane Gelitz ist Diplompsychologin und Redakteurin bei »Spektrum.de«.

Kaynak: https://www.spektrum.de/news/die-neurone-die-uns-nicht-schlafen-lassen/1626120


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--Alıntı--

GEHIRN-GLEICHGEWICHT
:
"Die zwei Funktionen des Schlafs"


von Lars Fischer - 31.01.2019

Im Schlaf stellt unser Gehirn sicher, dass wir einerseits zwar neue Dinge lernen - aber andererseits trotzdem wir selbst bleiben.

*-*8ş

Über die Funktion des Schlafs im Gehirn diskutieren Fachleute seit geraumer Zeit: Dient die Auszeit dazu, Verbindungen zwischen Nervenzellen zu stärken oder zu schwächen? Für beide Hypothesen gibt es gute Indizien. In einer Studie an 30 Versuchspersonen kommt nun eine Arbeitsgruppe um Christoph Nissen von der Uniklinik Freiburg zu dem Schluss, dass beides stimmt. Wie das Team in »Sleep« berichtet, deuten die Befunde darauf hin, dass zu gelernten Informationen beitragende Synapsen im Schlaf gestärkt werden, während die Synapsenstärke übers ganze Gehirn betrachtet gleichzeitig absinkt. Durch diese gleichzeitigen Vorgänge festigt das Gehirn einerseits über den Tag erlernte Veränderungen, verhindert aber andererseits, dass das Gehirn durch seine neuronale Plastizität auf Dauer instabil wird, schreibt das Team.

Um die Veränderungen in der Stärke synaptischer Verbindungen zu untersuchen, nutzte Nissens Arbeitsgruppe mehrere nichtinvasive Verfahren. So stärkte sie gezielt Verknüpfungen im motorischen Kortex und maß, wie sich diese Veränderungen im Schlaf entwickelten; daneben ermittelte sie die Hirnaktivität der Versuchspersonen vor, während und nach einem kurzen Nickerchen. In diesen Experimenten zeigten sich sowohl Anzeichen für eine globale Senkung der Aktivität als auch für lokal gestärkte Verknüpfungen spezifisch nach kurzen Phasen des Non-REM-Schlafs, heißt es in der Veröffentlichung. Das passe zu der Vorstellung, dass Schlaf dazu dient, das Dilemma zwischen der für das Lernen nötigen Veränderlichkeit des Gehirns durch Sinnesreize aller Art einerseits und der dauerhaften Stabilität des Denkorgans andererseits aufzulösen.

▄▄
Lars Fischer ist studierter Chemiker und Redakteur bei »Spektrum.de«.

Kaynak: https://www.spektrum.de/news/gehirn-gleichgewicht-die-zwei-funktionen-des-schlafs/1621352


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--Alıntı--

BIOLOGIE DES SCHLAFENS
:
"Was schaukelt uns in den Schlaf?"


von Jan Osterkamp 24.01.2019


Forscher finden heraus: In den Schlaf wiegen funktioniert echt. Und das bei Mäusen, kleinen und großen Menschen. Nur warum eigentlich?

Hängematten, sanft schaukelnde Boote und natürlich jede Babywiege machen unfehlbar eines: schläfrig. Warum das so ist, kann nie gut genug untersucht sein, meinten eidgenössische Wissenschaftler, bevor sie zuletzt einige Freiwillige zu einem Test auf einer kontrolliert schaukelnden Bettstatt im Schlaflabor baten. In »Current Biology« berichten sie jetzt von den wichtigsten Erkenntnissen ihrer Mühen: Wer in den Schlaf gewiegt wird, schläft besser – und stärkt nebenbei seine Gedächtnisleistungen nach dem Nickerchen. Das, so eine zweite Studie, gilt im Übrigen für Mäuse ebenso wie für Menschen.

Auch die Forscher der Universität Genf hatten schon in früheren Versuchen herausgefunden, dass Probanden besser schlafen, wenn sie sanft hin- und hergeschaukelt werden. Nun testeten sie die Folgen eines besonders erholsamen Nickerchens noch einmal gründlicher an 18 jungen Erwachsenen, deren Schlafqualität im Uniklinikum nach einer Eingewöhnungszeit an die Umgebung über zwei Nächte hinweg mit allerlei Geräten überwacht wurde. Die eine Hälfte der Kandidaten nächtigte dabei in einem normalen, die zweite in einem sanft schaukelnden, sonst aber identischen Bett. Das Ergebnis war erwartbar: Gewiegte Probanden schliefen schneller ein, blieben dann länger in Tiefschlafphasen und hatten mit selteneren Kurzzeitaufwachereignissen zu tun, die normalerweise einen subjektiv als schlecht empfundenen Schlaf charakterisieren.

Offenbar synchronisiert das Schaukeln auf recht direktem Weg den über Wachen und Schlaf entscheidenden Regulator der Hirnwellenaktivität im so genannten thalamo-kortikalen System des Hirns. Die in den Schlaf gewiegten Thalamusneurone fungieren dabei als Auslöser. Sie bringen dort die thalamo-kortikalen Aktivitätsmuster in Übereinstimmung, was dann im EEG an typischen oszillierenden Deltawellen zu erkennen ist, die mit einer drastischen Reduktion der sensorischen Antwortbereitschaft des Gehirns einhergehen: Man schläft ein. Dieselben thalamo-kortikalen Systeme spielen aber auch eine Rolle bei der Konsolidation von Gedächtnisinhalten, und so lag ein Zusammenhang von Gedächtnisleistung und gutem Schlaf nahe. Dies bestätigte sich in den Versuchen der Forscher am Tag nach der Nacht im Schlaflabor. Die besonders ausgeschlafenen Probanden verbesserten ihre Leistung in Gedächtnistests stets deutlich.

Der Zusammenhang zwischen Hirnsynchronisator und Wiegefrequenz war damit aber noch ungeklärt. In Versuchen mit Mäusen gingen die Forscher der Hypothese nach, dass das Gleichgewichtsorgan im Innenohr die Wiegereize direkt über den Vestibularnerv zu den Hirnneuronen leitet. Dies untersuchten die Forscher mit in den Schlaf geschaukelten Mäusen – wobei sie zunächst konstatierten, dass Mäuse offenbar eine viermal höhere Schaukelgeschwindigkeit zum Einschlafen goutieren als Menschen, die in Versuchen gerne mit 0,25 Hertz in den Schlaf gewiegt werden. Dann stellte sich heraus, dass auch Mäuse auf der Wiege besser und tiefer schlafen – nicht aber solche Tiere, denen das Gleichgewichtsorgan fehlte: Diese reagieren überhaupt nicht auf den Schlafschaukeleffekt.

Am Ende könnten nun weitere Versuche einen ganz praktischen Nutzwert haben und vielleicht so etwas wie eine optimale Wiegegeschwindigkeit für den Einzelfall berechenbar machen. Womöglich erklären sich damit auch unterschiedliche Resultate aus früheren Experimenten, bei denen oft unterschiedliche Schaukel- und Wiegeparameter mit mehr oder weniger Erfolg getestet wurden. In den neuen Versuchen deutet sich an, dass womöglich weniger die Schaukelfrequenz über den Einschlafeffekt entscheidet als die lineare Beschleunigung, die im Innenohr ankommt: Sie ergibt sich aus der Frequenz, aber auch aus der Amplitude des Schaukelns – beide kombiniert sorgen dann für einen maximalen Effekt, der die weiterleitenden Neuronen optimal aktivierte. Deutlich wurde in Vorversuchen übrigens auch, wie man es übertreiben kann: Ein Schaukeln mit einer nochmals doppelt höheren Frequenz sorgte nicht für noch besseren Schlaf, sondern, so die Studie, nur »für sichtbares Unwohlsein« der Versuchstiere.

▄▄
Jan Osterkamp ist Redakteur bei »Spektrum.de«.


Kaynak: https://www.spektrum.de/news/beim-schaukeln-gelangen-wir-schneller-und-effektiver-in-den-schlaf/1620282
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Adnan Özdemir  Identity Verified
Turkey
Local time: 02:56
Member (2007)
German to Turkish
+ ...
TOPIC STARTER
~ Mar 5

--Alıntı--

"Sarhoşluğun dört hali"


Yazı: David Robson - BBC Future - 10 Aralık 2015

*-*1


_Sarhoş olduğunuzda nasıl bir kimliğe bürünüyor, ne özellikler sergiliyorsunuz?

Alkolün insan karakterini nasıl değiştirdiği konusundaki araştırmalarının bir parçası olarak Rachel Winograd sarhoşluk türlerini dörde ayırıyor.

ABD’nin Missouri Üniversitesi’nden Winograd, mevcut araştırmaların alkolün belirgin fiziksel etkileri üzerinde yoğunlaştığını, kişiliği nasıl değiştirdiği sorununun ise hiç ele alınmadığını belirtiyor. “Hepimiz insanların sarhoşken ne kadar farklı davrandığını söyleriz; ‘iyi’ sarhoşlardan, ‘kötü’ sarhoşlardan söz ederiz; ama bilimsel literatürde bu alanda bir boşluk var” diyor.

*-*2

Oysa eskiden beri alkolün değiştirici etkisi ilgi çekmiştir. Kraliçe Elizabeth (1533-1603) döneminde bir hicivci sekiz tür sarhoşluk hali olduğunu söylemiş ve bunların her birine bir hayvan adı vermişti. Bu sınıflandırma, “hoplayıp zıplayan, şarkı söyleyip dans eden maymun sarhoşluğu”, “ağır, hantal ve uyuşuk domuz sarhoşluğu”, “aklı zamparalıktan başka bir şeye işlemeyen keçi sarhoşluğu” gibi türler içeriyordu. Ancak psikologlar bu fikri herhangi bir deneye tabi tutmadı.

Winograd, birkaç yüz öğrenciden, yanlarına içki içen bir arkadaşlarını alıp laboratuvara getirmelerini istedi. Bu kişilere ayrıntılı bir kişilik anketi uygulanarak hem ayıkken hem de sarhoşken kendilerini ve arkadaşlarını nasıl değerlendirdikleri soruldu.

Böylece Winograd insanların düşüncelilik, dışadönüklük, uyumluluk gibi kişilik özelliklerindeki değişiklikleri gözleme olanağı buldu.

Daha sonra Winograd bu cevapları inceleyip belli davranış özelliklerini gruplara ayırarak dört belirgin sarhoşluk türü ortaya koydu ve bunlara kültürel olarak iyi tanınan simgesel isimler verildi.

*-*3
Ernest Hemingway: Tıpkı ünlü Amerikalı yazarın kendisi gibi zekasını ve rasyonelliğini korur ve sarhoşken genel olarak pek değişmezler.

*-*4
Mary Poppins: Fantastik müzikal filmin kahramanı gibi neşeli ve uzlaşmacıdırlar; gece boyunca sorumlu davranırlar.

Çatlak Profesör: ABD yapımı komedi filminin kahramanı profesör gibi başlangıçta içe kapanık olan bu insanlar giderek açılır ve bazen riskli de olabilecek şekilde aşırı cesaret bulur.

Bay Hyde: Dr Jekyll ve Bay Hyde filmindeki çift karakterli doktorun büründüğü kötü kişilik olan Bay Hyde gibi uzlaşmacılığını, düşünceli davranışlarını yitiren ve içtikçe sorumsuzlaşan “kötü” sarhoştur bunlar.

//İskoç yazar Robert Louis Stevenson'un Dr Jekyll ve Bay Hyde adlı kitabından 1931'de tiyatroya uyarlanan oyundan bir sahne///5


Deneydeki çoğu insan Ernest Hemingway türü sarhoş çıkarken yüzde 15’in de Mary Poppins tarzı olduğu görüldü.

Winograd, bu sınıflandırmanın eğlence maksadıyla yapıldığını ve araştırmanın da bu sınıflandırmanın özünü yakalamaya çalıştığını, bilimsel bir değerlendirme olarak ele alınmaması gerektiğini belirtiyor.

Siz hangi türdensiniz?

Farklı kişilik türleri için kullandığı isimler anlamsız gelse de Winograd, popüler kültüre seslenerek araştırmanın daha geniş kesimlere ulaşmasını istediğini söylüyor. “Bu ayrımın bütün farklılıkları içerdiğini düşünecek kadar saf değiliz; ama anlaması kolay ve insanların kendilerine veya ailelerine kolaylıkla uygulayabileceği kanısındayız.”

Sarhoşken yapılan arkadaş değerlendirmesinde çok fazla uyum olmadığı görüldü. Bunun nedeni, alkol aldığımızda kendimizi arkadaşımızın gördüğünden daha pembe gözlüklerle görmemiz ya da kendimizdeki değişimi onlardan daha iyi algılamamız olabilir.

İnsanların sarhoşluğunun farklı durumlarda nasıl değiştiğini incelemek de ilginç olurdu. Örneğin bir gün Çatlak Profesör’e dönüşürken bir başka gün Bay Hyde olabilirsiniz.

Bu sorunları çözmek için Winograd öğrencileri çakırkeyif haldeyken videoya kaydedip sonra bağımsız uzmanların değerlendirmesine sunma konusunda çalışıyor.

Bu çalışmanın en azından alkol alma ve bununla ilgili sorunlar konusunda daha analitik düşünmemizi sağlamasını umut ediyor.


Kaynak: https://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler/2015/12/151210_vert_fut_sarhoslugun_turleri


Bu makalenin İngilizce aslını BBC Future’da okuyabilirsiniz.


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--Alıntı--


By David Robson - 9 December 2015


It was Rachel Winograd, at the University of Missouri, who first came up with these four distinct types of drunk, as she started exploring the way that alcohol can alter our character.

Existing experiments, she says, had looked at the way that alcohol influences clear-cut measures, like reaction time or self-control – but never the messier question of personality. “We all talk about the ways that people are so different when drunk – the ‘good’ drunks or ‘bad’ drunks – but there was this gap in the scientific literature.”

This is despite a long interest in the transformative effects of booze: an Elizabethan satirist, for instance, named eight types of drunk after different species of animals, including the “ape drunk” who “leaps and sings and hollows and danceth for the heavens”, the swine drunk who is “heavy, lumpish and sleepy”, and the “goat drunk” who “hath no mind but on lechery”. Yet psychologists hadn’t put the idea to the test.

So Winograd invited a few hundred students to bring along a drinking buddy to her lab. There, they were asked to answer detailed personality questionnaires about how they perceived themselves, and their friend, when both sober, and drunk. Through this, she could examine the change in traits characteristics such as conscientiousness, extraversion, and agreeableness.

Winograd and her supervisor then analysed their answers to pick out certain clusters of behavioural characteristics, finding four distinct types of drunk in total, which they named according to popular cultural icons.

Ernest Hemingway, who, like the writer, retain their intellect and rationality and generally change very little when drunk.

Mary Poppins, the cheery, agreeable drunk who remains responsible throughout the night.

The Nutty Professor, who starts out as an introvert but suddenly becomes more outgoing (and even a little risky) with some Dutch courage.

Mr Hyde, the “mean” drunk who becomes less agreeable, less conscientious, and more irresponsible the more they consume.

Interestingly, most people were Ernest Hemingway, while just 15% were Mary Poppins. Our quiz has tried to capture the essence of these findings, but it was written purely for entertainment, and shouldn’t be read as a scientific assessment of your drinking habits.

Although her labels for the different personality types may sound frivolous, Winograd hopes that appealing to popular culture will help her research reach a broader audience. “We weren’t naïve enough to think it fully captures all the nuances,” she says, “but it’s something that is easy to understand and that people might recognise and apply to themselves or their family when interpreting the research.”

There was only a modest agreement between the drinking buddies’ ratings of each other. One possibility is that our beer goggles lead us to paint a rosier picture of ourselves than our friends see; alternatively, it could be that we are simply better at perceiving the changes in ourselves – whether we feel shy or confident, for instance – that our friends miss. It would also be interesting to see how people’s drunkenness changes in different situations; it’s perfectly possible you may be The Nutty Professor one night and Mr Hyde the next. To resolve these issues, Winograd is working on experiments that will film students getting a little tipsy, so that independent experts can analyse their behaviour.

In the meantime, she hopes her work will at least help us all think a little bit more analytically about our drinking and any problems it may bring. “It could trigger conversations that might start out light-hearted, but may have a clinical impact if someone realises that maybe people don’t like being around them as much as they thought they did.” Whether you are Mr Hyde or Mary Poppins, we could all raise a glass to that.


Kaynak: http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20151207-quiz-find-out-what-kind-of-drunk-you-are


[Edited at 2019-03-05 22:15 GMT]


 

Adnan Özdemir  Identity Verified
Turkey
Local time: 02:56
Member (2007)
German to Turkish
+ ...
TOPIC STARTER
~ Mar 7

--Alıntı--

"Yeni Şafak: Kamu borcunu ödesin, çarklar döner"


Sözcü - 12:16 - 7 Mart 2019


Hükümete yakın Yeni Şafak Gazetesi'nin bugün birinci sayfasından ‘Kamu borcunu ödesin çarklar döner’ başlığı ile bir haber yayımlandı. Haberde şirketlerin devletten alacakları olduğu vurgulandı. Haberin detayında iş dünyasının görüşlerine yer verildi.

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İşte Yeni Şafak'ın birinci sayfasında yer alan o haber:

İş dünyası ve uzmanlar ‘devletin mal ve hizmet satın aldığı şirketlere borcunu ödemesi çarkları hızlandırır' diyor.

MÜSİAD Genel Başkan Yardımcısı Kerim Altıntaş, “Kamu alacakları ödenirse şirketlerin önündeki bulutlar dağılır. Faiz ve enflasyon da düşer” diyor.

ASKON Genel Başkanı Orhan Aydın, “Kamu kurumlarının piyasaya olan borçlarını ödemek konusunda ellerini taşın altına koyması gerek” ifadesini kullanıyor.

Albayrak Grubu CEO'su Ömer Bolat ise, “İşletmeler alacaklarıyla perişan oluyor. Kamu borçlarını öderse işletmeler de tedarikçi ve işçilere ödemelerini yapar” diye konuştu.

Doç. Dr. Kadir Tuna, “Üretim yavaşlıyor. Kamu kuruluşlarının ödeme planları gözden geçirilip hızlandırılmalı” diyor.

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Kaynak: https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2019/ekonomi/yeni-safak-kamu-borcunu-odesin-carklar-doner-3820914/



[Edited at 2019-03-07 10:05 GMT]


 

Adnan Özdemir  Identity Verified
Turkey
Local time: 02:56
Member (2007)
German to Turkish
+ ...
TOPIC STARTER
~ Mar 10

--Alıntı--


"6 yılda çığ gibi büyüyen seferberlik"

Altı yıl önce yerel tohumların yok olmaması için seferberlik başlatan bir grup kadının çabası üreticilerle birlikte çığ gibi büyüyerek 'Fethiye Ata Tarımsal Kalkınma Kooperatifi'ne dönüştü...


Yazı: Yusuf Yavuz -10.03.2019 13:06

Gıda bağımsızlığının ve biyolojik çeşitliliğin temel güvencesi olan yerel tohumlar hızla yok o
... See more
--Alıntı--


"6 yılda çığ gibi büyüyen seferberlik"

Altı yıl önce yerel tohumların yok olmaması için seferberlik başlatan bir grup kadının çabası üreticilerle birlikte çığ gibi büyüyerek 'Fethiye Ata Tarımsal Kalkınma Kooperatifi'ne dönüştü...


Yazı: Yusuf Yavuz -10.03.2019 13:06

Gıda bağımsızlığının ve biyolojik çeşitliliğin temel güvencesi olan yerel tohumlar hızla yok oluyor. 2006 yılında çıkarılan Tohumculuk Kanunu ile yerel tohumların ticari olarak satışı yasaklanırken, geçtiğimiz yıl yapılan yeni düzenlemeyle ise yerel tohum kullanarak üretim yapmak isteyen üreticilere sertifikasyon zorunluluğu getirildi. Muğla'nın Fethiye ilçesinde ise yerel tohumları ve halk sağlığını korumak için yola çıkan tohum gönüllüsü kadınlar 6 yıldır sürdürdükleri çabaları kooperatif kurarak taçlandırdılar. Fethiye ve çevre köylerde yerel tohumlarla üretim yapılmasını ve bu ürünlerin satışını organize ederek ata yadigarı onlarca yerel tohumu yok olmaktan kurtaran kadınlar, üreticilerle birlikte kooperatif kurdular. 'S.S. Fethiye Ata Tarımsal Kalkınma Kooperatifi' adıyla örgütlenen üreticiler, 16 Mart'ta altıncısı düzenlenecek olan yerel tohum takası şenliğine hazırlanıyor.

FETHİYELİ KADINLARI BAŞLATTIĞI SEFERBERLİĞİ ÖRNEK OLDU

Muğla'nın Fethiye ilçesinde altı yıldır tüm ülkeye örnek olacak bir yaşam seferberliği sürdürülüyor. Yerel tohumların yasal düzenlemelerle birlikte yok olmaya terk edilmesine karşı bir şeyler yapmak isteyen Cumhuriyet Kadınları Derneği (CKD) Fethiye Şubesi üyeleri, dernek Başkanı Dr. Nalan Ünal'ın öncülüğünde yerel tohum seferberliği başlattılar. Köy köy dolaşarak yerel tohumlar hakkında çalışma başlatan tohum gönüllüsü kadınlar, üreticilerin ellerindeki tohumları takas ederek çoğaltabileceği şenlikler organize etmelerinin yanında bu tohumlarla üretim yapılmasını sağlayacak projeleri de hayata geçirdiler. Kısa sürede yüzlerce üreticiye ulaşan proje kapsamında üretilen yerel tohum ürünleri Fethiye'deki pazarda tüketiciyle buluştu.

'FETHİYE ATA TARIMSAL KALKINMA KOOPERATİFİ' KURULDU

Fethiye Belediyesi'nin de destek verdiği yerel tohum üretici pazarında tüketiciyle buluşan ürünler bundan böyle daha örgütlü bir organizasyonla üretilecek. Altı yıllık bir yerel tohum mücadelesinin sonunda ortaya çıkan 'S.S. Fethiye Ata Tarımsal Kalkınma Kooperatifi' resmen kuruldu. Yönetiminde çiftçilerin yer aldığı kooperatifin ortağı olan ve kuruluşunda yer alan CKD Fethiye Şubesinin Yönetim Kurulu Üyesi ve Yerel Tohum Sorumlusu Ebru Oğuzhan Yeter, konuyla ilgili yaptığı değerlendirmede şunları dile getirdi:

'HEDEFİMİZ KÜÇÜK AİLE ÇİFTÇİLERİNİ BİR ARAYA GETİRMEK'

"S.S. Fethiye Ata Tarımsal Kalkınma Kooperatifi altı yıllık bir emeğin, inançlı bir mücadelenin, ekip çalışmasının, toprağa bağlılığın ve en çok da bağımsızlıktan yana birleşen yüreklerin çabasıyla kuruldu. Önce inanç, güven, sevgi, eşitlik, şeffaflık ve emek gücüyle çalışırsak başaracağımıza inanarak kuruldu. Hedefimiz yerel-atalık tohumlardan üretim yapan, doğru üretim yaparken, doğal gübre, doğal ilaç kullanan, ürettiklerine yeterince pazar bulamayan küçük aile çiftçilerini bir araya getirmek, kooperatif çatısı altında buluşturmaktı amacımıza ulaştık."

KOOPERATİFLE YEREL ÜRÜNLER HERKESE ULAŞACAK

Çiftçilerin sorunlarına çözüm aramak ve tarımla ilgili her türlü konuda güç birliği yapmak amacıyla yola çıktıklarını dile getiren Yeter, "Bu örgütlenme ile başka oluşumlara örnek olmak amacıyla yola çıktık ve bu konuda bir çok kişiye örnek olduk. Kooperatifimiz öncelikle cesur kadınlarımızın isteği ile kadın erkek birlikte mücadele etmenin önemini kavrayan emekçi vatanseverlerle kuruldu. Yerel-atalık tohumlardan üretilen sağlıklı ürünlerin sadece ailemize, bölgemize değil ülkemizin her köşesine ulaşmasını hedeflediğimiz için kuruldu. Bizim bilerek tükettiğimiz, çocuğumuzun özellikle yemesini istediğimiz ürünlerin aynı titizlikle tüm halkımıza ulaşmasını istediğimiz için kuruldu. Köylü pazarında satılan yerel ürünlerin aynı eşdeğer fiyat üzerinden kooperatif kanalıyla herkese ulaşmasını sağlamak için kuruldu" ifadelerini kullandı.

'ÜRETİCİ EMEĞİNİN KARŞILIĞINI ALABİLSİN DİYE KURULDU'

Çiftçilerin güçlü örgütlenmeler ile her alanda söz hakkı sahibi olmaları ve haklarını aramaları gerektiğine işaret eden Ebru Oğuzhan Yeter, kooperatifin çiftçilerin emeklerinin karşılığını sonuna kadar alabilmeleri amacıyla kurulduğuna işaret ederek şunları dile getirdi: "Ürettiği ürünleri zor şartlarda pazara getiren, soğukta, sıcakta üç kuruş kazanmak için ayakta ter döken, beli bükülen çiftçimiz pazar kaygısı duymadan, evinde oturup daha çok üretsin, emeğinin karşılığını alsın, çocuklarına, torunlarına daha çok zaman ayırsın ve onlara tarımda, üretmenin zor olmadığını, emeğinin karşılığını aldığını anlatsın diye kuruldu.

TARIM HEM ÜRETİCİ HEM DE TÜKETİCİ YARARINA GELİŞMELİ

Köylerde yerel-atalık tohum üreticilerinin tarım girdileri ile ilgili sorunlarını çözmek, imece desteği vermek, onların her türlü sorunlarıyla ilgilenip üretici-tüketici dostluğunu yaşatmak için kuruldu. Ülkemizde tarımın hem üretici, hem de tüketici yararına olacak şekilde geliştirilmesi ve örnek bir Kooperatifçiliği hayata geçirmek istediğimiz için kuruldu. Kapitalizme karşı, yanlış tarım politikalarına karşı üretici ve tüketiciyi emeğin çatısı altında buluşturmak için kuruldu.

'GÖNÜLLÜLERİN EMEĞİYLE KURULDU'

Her ne kadar olumsuz örnekleri insanların gözünü korkutsa da, ülkemizde başarı sağlayan, önemli işler yapan kooperatifler de var, bunlardan biri olmak, yeni hedeflerle, projelerle daha büyük işler yapmak için kuruldu. Yerel -atalık tohumlardan üretim yaparak, katma değer oluşturulmasını, kentlere göç edenlerin, özellikle de köylerden uzaklaşan gençlerin bu işi sahiplenmelerini amaçladığımız için kuruldu. Bu çalışmaları yaparken en başından beri, hiç bir dış desteğe ve hibeye baş vurmadan, ihtiyaç duymadan, kendi imkanlarımızla ve tamamen gönüllü olarak verdiğimiz bir emeğin sonucunda kuruldu."

'YEREL TOHUM İÇİN ÜRETİCİLERLE BİRLİKTE ÇÖZÜMLER BULDUK'

Kooperatifin kuruluşu aşamasında bir çok zorluklarla karşılaştıklarının da altını çizen Yeter, "İnancımızı hiç yitirmeden bildiğimiz yoldan dönmedik. Çiftçinin zorluklarını, çalışma şartlarını, onlarla birlikte mücadele ederken kavradık. Tarımsal girdilerden nasıl sıkıntı yaşadıklarını hazır tohum, gübre kullanmak zorunda kaldıklarını, bunlardan nasıl vazgeçeceklerine, yerel tohum ürünlerine nasıl pazar bulacaklarına birlikte çözümler bulduk. Türk çiftçisinin başarabileceğine, örgütlü gücün yenilmeyeceğine olan inancımızla, Gazi Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’ün dediği gibi, gücümüzü birleştirerek, maddi ve manevi kuvvetlerimizi, zeka ve yeteneklerimizi birleştirerek, yerel-atalık tohum üreticilerimizi S.S. Fethiye Ata Tarımsal Kalkınma Kooperatifi çatısı altında bir araya getirdik. Ülkemize, milletimize, Fethiye’mize hayırlı olsun" ifadelerini kullandı.

FETHİYE YEREL TOHUM TAKASI ŞENLİĞİ 16 MART'TA

"Sağlığımız, geleceğimiz ve bağımsızlığımız için destek olmaya siz de var mısınız?" sözleriyle kamuoyunu kooperatife ve yerel tohumları koruma çabalarına destek olmaya davet eden Ebru Oğuzhan Yeter, 16 Mart'ta 6. kez düzenlenecek olan Fethiye Yerel Tohum Takas Şenliği'ne de tüm ülkeden katılım beklediklerini sözlerine ekledi. Fethiye Belediyesi Özer Olgun Kültür Merkezinde gerçekleşecek olan Yerel Tohum Takas Şenliği kapsamında üreticilerin ve gönüllülerin tohumlarını takas edeceği etkinliğin yanında yerel lezzetlerden zeybek gösterisine bir çok etkinlik gerçekleştirilecek.

Kaynak: https://odatv.com/6-yilda-cig-gibi-buyuyen-seferberlik-10031908.html


Yazıdaki foturaflar


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--Alıntı--


Manavgat’taki rafting merkezinde eylem!


DHA - 10 Mart 2019 19:04

Antalya'nın Manavgat ilçesinde rafting merkezindeki mahallelerde oturanlar, Tarım ve Orman Bakanlığı 6'ncı Bölge Müdürlüğü Antalya Doğa Koruma ve Milli Parklar Şube Müdürlüğü tarafından evlerine, iş yerlerine ve tarlalarına ceza yazıldığını iddia etti. Beşkonak Mahallesi'nden Muharrem Kılınç da bahçesine ektiği patlıcan için ceza kesildiğini belirterek, "Geçen sene milli parklar yetkilileri geldi, şu patlıcana 401 lira para cezası kesti" dedi.

Her yıl 1 milyondan fazla turistin rafting yapmak için gittiği Manavgat’ın Köprülü Kanyon rafting merkezindeki Beşkonak, Bozyaka, Karabük, Altınyaka, Karadağ, Çay ve Burmahan mahallelerinde oturanlar ev, iş yeri ve tarlarına geçen yıl Doğa Koruma ve Milli Parklar Şube Müdürlüğü yetkilileri tarafından ecrimisil ve ceza zabtı tutanakları tutulduğunu belirterek, tutanaklarla ilgili de tarlalara 400 liradan 10 bin liraya kadar, evlere 10 bin liradan 80 bin liraya kadar, iş yerlerine ise 110 bin liradan 490 bin liraya kadar değişen miktarlarda kesilen cezaların aralık ayında tebliğ edildiğini kaydetti.

“BU ARAZİLER BİZE DEDELERİMİZDEN, ATALARIMIZDAN KALDI”

Çok sayıda kişi, ‘Bu araziler bize dedelerimizden atalarımızdan kaldı. Burası Osmanlı Devleti döneminde de vardı’ diyerek basın açıklaması yaptı ve yürüyüş düzenledi. Bugün öğle saatlerinde, kalabalık bir topluluk protesto amacıyla mahalle merkezinde bir araya geldi. Mahalleli adına hazırlanan basın açıklamasını okuyan Hasan Ali Toşur, Beşkonak bölgesindeki halkın yüzyıllar boyunca aynı yerde yaşadığını belirterek, “Atalarımızdan bize miras olarak kalan bu güzide yurdumuzu, bizler de bizden sonra gelen nesillere aynı şekilde bırakacağız. Fakat Milli Parklar Genel Müdürlüğü’nün uygulamış olduğu farklı uygulamalar, bizi altından kalkamayacağımız kadar zor durumda bırakıyor” dedi.

Basın açıklamasının ardından Beşkonak rafting merkezine giden yolu kapatan grup, çeşitli sloganlar atarak mahalle sınırlarındaki demir köprüye kadar yürüdü. Burada oturma eyleme yapmak isteyen grup, jandarma tarafından ikna edildi.

“YETKİLİLER BU SIKINTILARIMIZI DUYSUN”

Basın açıklaması ve yürüyüşe katılanlardan Mehmet Aydın, Köprülü Kanyon Milli Parkı’nın 38 bin hektarlık bir alanı kapsadığını, ilk ilan edildiğinde bu kadar olmadığını, daha sonra köylerini de içine alarak genişlediğini söyledi. Milli park nedeniyle tapulu arazilerinde dahi hiçbir şey yapamadıklarını anlatan Mehmet Aydın, “Yetkililer bu sıkıntılarımızı duysun. Cumhurbaşkanımız, Orman Bakanımız bu milletin sürekelerini ve evlerini milli park dışına çıkarsın. Milli park 38 bin hektar, 8 bin hektarı bizim tarlamızın içinde. Biz tarlalarımızı, evlerimizi istiyoruz. Biz başka bir şey istemiyoruz. Milli Park yerinde dursun. Köprülü Kanyon’dan yukarıda dursun” dedi.

“ÇARE BULUNMASINI İSTİYORUZ”

Milli park nedeniyle insanların ev yapamadığını, evlerine çivi bile çakamadığını, tarlalarını ekemediğini, bu nedenle nüfusun her geçen gün azaldığını söyleyen Mehmet Aydın, “Buradan göç başladı. Gençler ev yapamaz oldu. Biz yetkililerden sorunlarımıza çare bulunmasını istiyoruz. Kemer’de, Saklıkent’te, Beyşehir’de olduğu gibi burada da sürekelerimiz ve evlerimizin olduğu yerden milli parkın kalkmasını istiyoruz” diye konuştu.

“EVİN İÇİNDE MİLLİ PARK OLUR MU?”

Beşkonak Mahallesi’nde oturan Ali Tombul (80), bir köyün tarihinin mezarlıklardan anlaşılabileceğini belirterek, mahallenin mezarlığında açıklama yaptı. Beşkonak’ın tarihinin çok eskilere, Osmanlı dönemine dayandığını söyleyen Tombul, “Bu köy Osmanlı döneminden kalma bir köydür. O zamanlar, Konya vilayet, Antalya kaza, Beşkonak ise nahiyedir. Bilebildiğim benim dedemin, dedesinin, dedesi de buralı. Benim dedem hacca deveyle gitmiş. Biz onların torunuyuz. Milli park zulmet, gecesi de zulmet, gündüzü de zulmet. Ama şuna dua ediyoruz ki gelen memurlar yardımcı oluyor. Ama bu memleketin içinde, evin içinde milli park olur mu? Olmaz, biz bunu istemiyoruz. 30 milyar, 50 milyar, 60 milyar hesapsız ceza geldi. SİT alanına girmişim diye bana da geldi. Benim dedemin dedesinden kalan bir yer bu ırmağın kenarında. Dedemden babama kalmış, babamdan da bana kaldı” dedi.

“NEFES ALMAMIZ ARTIK ZOR”

Beşkonak Mahallesi’nden Muharrem Kılınç da bahçesine ektiği patlıcan için ceza kesildiğini belirterek, “Geçen sene milli parklar yetkilileri geldi, şu patlıcana 401 lira para cezası kesti. Yani 20 metrekare yere patlıcan ekemiyoruz. Ev yapamıyoruz, odun getiremiyoruz. Nefes almamız gerçekten artık zor” diye konuştu.

Kaynak: https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2019/gundem/manavgattaki-rafting-merkezinde-eylem-3855844/


Haberin foturafları

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ADO_YORUM: Türkiye'deki sorunlardan biri de bürokrasi ve "okumuş insan" sorunudur. Salakçana uygulanan SİT şeysileri de taa Osmanlı ve devamındaki Cumhuriyet bürokrasisinden gelmekte. Tuhaf insanların ülkesiyiz işte. İşlerde bile düşük-yüksek, kariyerli-kariyersiz ayırımları çok yaygınlaştı. Masabaşı iş ararken boşlukları sevgili Afgan vatandaşları dolduruverdi bile çoktandır. Vaktında Avrupalılar da bazı işleri beğenmemişti ve bu durum "Alamanyacı" babalarımıza yaramıştı ve göçüp getmiştik Almanyalara...

Bürokrasi diyordum bürokrasiii. Kaldırın arkadaş şu gereksiz bürokrasileri artık olma mı. Turistler rafting yapacak diye anadan-atadan kalan topraklarını kullanamayacak mı bu insanlar? Gençler köylerine ev yapmasın mı?!! Demekki Barselonalılar turistlerden ve turizmden boşuna bıkmamışlar işte. Ben bu yazıdan bunu bir daha anladım; Barselonalılar ve bu insanlarımız haklı arkadaş...




[Edited at 2019-03-10 19:39 GMT]
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Adnan Özdemir  Identity Verified
Turkey
Local time: 02:56
Member (2007)
German to Turkish
+ ...
TOPIC STARTER
~ Mar 13

--Alıntı--

US-Hochschulen
"Felicity Huffman und Lori Loughlin in Bestechungsskandal angeklagt"

bbr/dpa/AP, 12.03.2019 19:00 Uhr

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Dutzende Eltern in den USA sollen mit "enormen Summen" bestochen haben, um ihre Kinder an Elite-Universitäten unterzubringen. In der Anklageschrift finden sich auch prominente Namen.

Die Schauspielerinnen Felicity Huffman und Lori Loughlin sollen - ebenso wie Dutzende andere wohlhabende Eltern - Bestechungsgeld gezahlt haben, um ihre Kinder an prestigeträchtigen Hochschulen wie Yale oder Stanford unterzubringen.

Nun wurden 50 Personen, darunter 33 Eltern und neun Trainer, angeklagt, wie die Staatsanwaltschaft in Massachusetts mitteilte. Die Eltern hätten "enorme Summen" gezahlt, um die Annahme ihrer Kinder zu garantieren, hieß es. Den Trainern werde vorgeworfen, die Bestechungsgelder angenommen zu haben. Es gibt keine Hinweise darauf, dass die Hochschulen von den Aktivitäten der mutmaßlichen Täter gewusst haben. Sie sind laut Staatsanwalt Andrew Lelling nicht Teil der aktuellen Ermittlungen.

"Diese Eltern sind ein Katalog an Reichtum und Privilegien", sagte Lelling. Für jede Person, die durch Betrug angenommen worden sei, sei eine ehrliche, wirklich talentierte abgelehnt worden. Eltern sollen 200.000 bis 6,5 Millionen Dollar gezahlt haben, um ihrem Kind einen Platz an der Wunsch-Universität zu sichern.

Die Fälle reichen demnach bis ins Jahr 2011 zurück. Gerichtsdokumenten zufolge organisierte eine Agentur in Kalifornien den Betrug. Sie soll insgesamt 25 Millionen Dollar erhalten haben.

Teils sollten die Kinder der Angeklagten unabhängig von ihren sportlichen Leistungen als Sport-Stipendiaten angenommen worden sein. Viele US-Hochschulen locken herausragende Sportler mit wertvollen Stipendien. Teils soll bei Aufnahmeprüfungen betrogen worden sein. Entweder sollen andere Personen die Prüfungen anstelle der eigentlichen Kandidaten absolviert haben. Oder es sollen Antworten nachträglich verändert worden sein.

Betroffen seien unter anderem die Universitäten Georgetown in Washington, Yale in Connecticut, die University of Texas sowie Stanford, die University of Southern California und die UCLA in Kalifornien.

Schauspielerin Huffman soll laut Anklage 15.000 Dollar (mehr als 13.200 Euro) als Spende getarntes Schmiergeld gezahlt haben, um zu erreichen, dass Antworten ihrer ältesten Tochter beim landesweiten Einstufungstest SAT nachträglich aufgebessert werden. Huffman ist aus der TV-Serie "Desperate Housewives" bekannt, Lori Loughlin vor allem aus der Sitcom "Full House" und der Folgeserie "Fuller House".

Kaynak: http://www.spiegel.de/panorama/leute/felicity-huffman-und-lori-loughlin-in-bestechungsskandal-angeklagt-a-1257507.html


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--Alıntı--

"Desperate Housewives actress Felicity Huffman among 50 people arrested over £19m college admissions scam"


By Harriet Alexander, New York and Joe Wallen - 13 MARCH 2019 • 12:19AM


//Actress Felicity Huffman///21


An astonishing list of Hollywood actresses, financial titans and industry executives were arrested on Tuesday on charges of participating in a $25 million (£19m) scam to bribe their childrens’ way into elite American universities.

Oscar-nominated Felicity Huffman, star of Desperate Housewives, and sitcom star Lori Loughlin were among 33 parents who may face up to 20 years in prison if prosecuted and convicted on federal charges relating to the scheme.

They are accused of paying bribes of up to $6 million to secure admission to prestigious universities for their children.

Huffman appeared before a judge in Los Angeles on Tuesday night and was released on $250,000 bail, having surrendered her passport.

All have declined to comment.

With the help of exam administrators and athletics coaches, the parents are accused of either arranging for their child’s entrance exam to be completed by someone else, or corrected, or else they would claim their child was a sporting prodigy who should be given a place at university due to their athletic prowess.

Athletic coaches and exam invigilators were also among those charged.

//Lori Loughlin and her husband, fashion designer Mossimo Giannuli, are both accused of paying $500,000 to the scam///25


The mastermind of the scam, William Singer, on Tuesday pleaded guilty in Boston to racketeering, money laundering, conspiracy to defraud and obstruction of justice.

He allegedly arranged to stage photos “proving” the sporting skills of the children. He would also photoshop the child’s face onto a file photo of a high-performing athlete, to help the sporting coaches convince their colleagues to allow the student admission to university.

A sailing coach at Stanford University, John Vandemoer, 41, also pleaded guilty on Tuesday and was fired from the university. He admitted that he had agreed to hold admission spots on his team open for two applicants falsely portrayed as competitive sailors, in exchange for payments to the sailing programme worth $270,000.

Rudolph “Rudy” Meredith, the former head coach of Yale women’s soccer team, resigned from the university in November after 24 years, saying merely that he wanted “to begin a different chapter in my life”. He is also facing charges of fraud in connection to Singer’s scheme.

Andrew Lelling, the US attorney for Massachusetts, said the case was the largest college admission fraud ever uncovered, resulting in almost 50 arrests in six states.

He described the 33 parents as “a catalogue of wealth and privilege”.

//Yale university in Connecticut is among those targeted by the scam///7

Among them are multiple financiers, including Bill McGlashan, founder of $13 billion asset management firm TPG Growth. He also co-founded The Rise Fund, a $2 billion impact investment platform, along with U2’s Bono and eBay’s first president Jeff Skoll.

Miami real estate developer Robert Zangrillo, California dentist Homayoun Zadeh and Nevada gaming executive Gamal Abdelaziz are also charged.

The list of parents further includes Napa Valley-based Chilean wine maker Agustin Huneeus, whose father Agustin Huneeus Sr was CEO of Concha y Toro; and the founder of a Kentucky bourbon distillery, Marci Palatella, whose husband Lou is a legendary American Football player, with the San Francisco 49ers.

None of those named, approached by The Telegraph, responded to requests for comment.

Actress Lori Loughlin and her husband, fashion designer Mossimo Giannuli, are both accused of paying $500,000 to have their two daughters both designated as members of the University of Southern California (USC) rowing team – despite the fact that the girls do not row.

Loughlin's representatives told The Telegraph they did not wish to comment on the charges.

Huffman’s elder daughter, currently studying at the Los Angeles High School of the Arts (LAHSA), had a university place secured for her through a $15,000 “donation” to Singer’s charitable foundation, the court documents allege.

Huffman's representatives did not respond to The Telegraph's request for comment.

None of the students are listed in the indictment.

The parents could face possible jail time if convicted, he said, although he said it was too early to specify how long.

“For every student admitted through fraud, an honest, genuinely-talented child was rejected," said Mr Lalling.

“There can be no separate admissions programme for the wealthy, and there will be no separate criminal justice system, either.”

Adam Citron, senior counsel at Davidoff Hutcher & Citron LLP, and the former assistant district attorney in Westchester County, New York, told The Telegraph he was “dumbfounded” by the “brazen” scam.

“And the parents could get 20 years – although given that most of them do not have criminal records they could get probation or community service."

He added that if found guilty: "I don't think they will get much sympathy."

Kaynak: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2019/03/12/desperate-housewives-actress-felicity-huffman-among-50-people/


[Edited at 2019-03-13 02:30 GMT]


 

Matt Eastwood
Turkey
Local time: 02:56
English to Turkish
+ ...
Yapay Et Market Raflarına Artık Bir Adım Daha Yakın Apr 7

Laboratuvar eti, yapay et, sentetik et, hücre kültürü eti gibi kavramlar geçtiğimiz yıllarda hayatımıza girdiğinde ilk çok şaşırmıştık. O günlerden bu yana üzerinde yapılan çalışmaların hızı hiç kesilmediği için, artık hayatımıza girecekleri zamanın bir tık daha yakın olduğunu söyleyebiliriz.

Alıştığımız bir düzen var, elbette vejetaryen yaşayanlar için sinir bozucu olsa da, tüketim etlerinin ilk yetiştirilmeye başlanmasından sofraya
... See more
Laboratuvar eti, yapay et, sentetik et, hücre kültürü eti gibi kavramlar geçtiğimiz yıllarda hayatımıza girdiğinde ilk çok şaşırmıştık. O günlerden bu yana üzerinde yapılan çalışmaların hızı hiç kesilmediği için, artık hayatımıza girecekleri zamanın bir tık daha yakın olduğunu söyleyebiliriz.

Alıştığımız bir düzen var, elbette vejetaryen yaşayanlar için sinir bozucu olsa da, tüketim etlerinin ilk yetiştirilmeye başlanmasından sofraya geleceği güne kadar geçen zamanda, her noktada bir denetimi, ve kanuni düzenlemeleri var. Bu noktada beni aslında meraka sürükleyen, yapay etleri kim düzenleyecek? Muayene ya da kontrol gibi kısımlarını kim yapacak, neye göre yapacak? Oldu da ülkemize bu et ürünleri giriş yaptı. Bunun psikolojik kabulü kolay olacak mı? Kolayca bu eti satın alıp sofranıza getirir miydiniz? Madem bu et türü artık canlı hayvanların yok edilmesinin önüne geçecek, o zaman vejetaryen insanlar buna yeşil ışık yakacaklar mı? Gelecekte bir gün “et yiyor musun?” sorusuna, “evet ama sadece yapay et tüketiyorum” tarzında cevaplar , hayatımıza kolayca girebilecek mi?

Laboratuvar üretimi et nedir?
Laboratuvar üretimi et, hayvan hücrelerinin laboratuvarda bir şekilde yetiştirilmesi sonucunda elde edilen, tamamen geliştirme sonucu ortaya çıkan etlere verilen isim. Bu sayede elde edilen ürün, teknik olarak, tıpkı bir hayvan eti dokusuna benzeyen ve içeriğinde hayvan etinde bulunduğu gibi protein bulunduran etlerdir.

Bu yüzden aşağıda videoda da göreceğiniz gibi, ilk geliştirilen etler ancak hamburger eti şekline getirilerek kullanılabilmiş durumda.
Amerika’da tarım bakanlığı (USDA) ve bizdeki sağlık bakanlığı diyelim (FDA) bu konuda bir anlaşmaya varmışlar ve, hücre toplamı ve etin yetiştirilmesi aşamalarını FDA izleyip denetleyecekken, et çiğ forma ulaştığında Gıda güvenliği ve denetleme birimi (FSIS) tarafından gözlem altında olacak. Biz ve diğer bir çok ülke elbette bu konuyu gündemimize getirmeye bir hayli uzağız, şimdilik.

Öte yandan, mühür, etiketleme, vs. nasıl yapılacak tamamen ayrı bir tartışma konusu, USDA ya da FDA bu konuda henüz bir açıklama yapmış değil. Bu et türünün yaygınlaşması, sektörde ne gibi bir değişim ya da dalgalanma yaratacak, besi hayvanı yetiştiriciliğinin devasa bir sektör olduğu günümüz dünyasında, sektör bu konuya nasıl bakacak ya da tepki gösterecek tabii ki ilerleyen zamanlarda belli olacak.

Yapay et’e taraftar olanlar kadar karşıt olanlar da var
Teknoloji ve çevrecilik anlamında, sentetik et üretimi taraftarları ve karşıtları olarak tam anlamıyla ikiye bölünmüş durumda. Taraftarlarının gözünde bu gelişme canlı hayvan ‘katliamı’ sorununun önüne geçmiş olacak, metan gazı oluşumunun büyük oranda önüne geçmiş ve iklim değişikliği ve bunun sonucunda oluşan küresel ısınmanın durdurulmasında büyük bir paya sahip olacak, ve mutlaka gelişmesi ve yaygınlaşması gerekmekte. Öte yandan karşıtları ise, besihaneden sofraya kadar geçen süreçte bir çok kalemde iş yapılan ve milyonlarca insana ekmek kapısı olan sektörün yok olması demek olduğu, üretimi çok pahalı olduğu (elbette şimdilik öyle), çok fazla enerji tüketimine sebep olduğu ve tabii ki har hangi bir hayvanın bir parçası olmadığı için, bunun yasaklanması gerektiğini düşünmekteler.

Bu konular elbette tartışmaya açık, ama bakalım ilerleyen süreçler bize neyi gösterecek.

Kaynak: https://huglero.com/yapay-et-market-raflarina-artik-bir-adim-daha-yakin/
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Ve Sosyal
Turkey
Local time: 02:56
Kedi Bakımı Hakkında Bilinmesi Gerekenler Jun 15

Ülkemizde son yıllarda hayvanlara olan ilgi ve sevginin arttığı şüphesizdir. Birçok insan evinde hayvan bakımına başladı. Bu durum hem hayvanların yararına olmakta hem de onlara bakan insanlara rahatlık ve huzur vermektedir. En fazla bakılan hayvanların başında kediler gelmektedir. Hem onlarla ilgilenmenin verdiği huzur hem de onlarla geçirilecek eğlenceli zaman bizler için paha biçilemez bir durumdur.

Alıntı: See more
Ülkemizde son yıllarda hayvanlara olan ilgi ve sevginin arttığı şüphesizdir. Birçok insan evinde hayvan bakımına başladı. Bu durum hem hayvanların yararına olmakta hem de onlara bakan insanlara rahatlık ve huzur vermektedir. En fazla bakılan hayvanların başında kediler gelmektedir. Hem onlarla ilgilenmenin verdiği huzur hem de onlarla geçirilecek eğlenceli zaman bizler için paha biçilemez bir durumdur.

Alıntı: https://vesosyal.com/kedi-bakimi-hakkinda-bilinmesi-gereken-hususlar/
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